Acts 2:23
Parallel Verses
New International Version
This man was handed over to you by God's deliberate plan and foreknowledge; and you, with the help of wicked men, put him to death by nailing him to the cross.

King James Bible
Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain:

Darby Bible Translation
-- him, given up by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye, by [the] hand of lawless [men], have crucified and slain.

World English Bible
him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed;

Young's Literal Translation
this one, by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, being given out, having taken by lawless hands, having crucified -- ye did slay;

Acts 2:23 Parallel
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel - Bp. Pearce paraphrases the words thus: Him having been given forth; i.e. sent into the world, and manifested by being made flesh, and dwelling among you, as it is said in John 1:14; see also Acts 4:28.

Kypke contends that εκδοτον, delivered, does not refer to God, but to Judas the traitor "the Jews received Jesus, delivered up to them by Judas; the immutable counsel of God so permitting."

By the determinate counsel, ὡρισμενῃ βουλῃ; that counsel of God which defined the time, place, and circumstance, according (προγνωσει) to his foreknowledge, which always saw what was the most proper time and place for the manifestation and crucifixion of his Son; so that there was nothing casual in these things, God having determined that the salvation of a lost world should be brought about in this way; and neither the Jews nor Romans had any power here, but what was given to them from above. It was necessary to show the Jews that it was not through Christ's weakness or inability to defend himself that he was taken; nor was it through their malice merely that he was slain; for God had determined long before, from the foundation of the world, Revelation 13:8, to give his Son a sacrifice for sin; and the treachery of Judas, and the malice of the Jews were only the incidental means by which the great counsel of God was fulfilled: the counsel of God intending the sacrifice, but never ordering that it should be brought about by such wretched means. This was permitted; the other was decreed. See the observations at the end of this chapter.

By wicked hands have crucified and slain - I think this refers to the Romans, and not to the Jews; the former being the agents, to execute the evil purposes of the latter. It is well known that the Jews acknowledged that they had no power to put our Lord to death, John 18:31, and it is as well known that the punishment of the cross was not a Jewish, but a Roman, punishment: hence we may infer that by δια χειρων ανομων, by the hands of the wicked, the Romans are meant, being called ανομοι, without law, because they had no revelation from God; whereas the others had what was emphatically termed ὁ νομος του Θεου, the law of God, by which they professed to regulate their worship and their conduct. It was the Jews, therefore, who caused our Lord to be crucified by the hands of the heathen Romans.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge


Acts 3:18 But those things, which God before had showed by the mouth of all his prophets, that Christ should suffer, he has so fulfilled.

Acts 4:28 For to do whatever your hand and your counsel determined before to be done.

Acts 13:27 For they that dwell at Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they knew him not...

Acts 15:18 Known to God are all his works from the beginning of the world.

Psalm 76:10 Surely the wrath of man shall praise you: the remainder of wrath shall you restrain.

Isaiah 10:6,7 I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil...

Isaiah 46:10,11 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand...

Daniel 4:35 And all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing: and he does according to his will in the army of heaven...

Daniel 9:24-27 Seventy weeks are determined on your people and on your holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins...

Matthew 26:24 The Son of man goes as it is written of him...

Luke 22:22,37 And truly the Son of man goes, as it was determined: but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed!...

Luke 24:44-46 And he said to them, These are the words which I spoke to you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled...

John 19:24,31-37 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be...

Romans 4:17 (As it is written, I have made you a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God, who vivifies the dead...

Romans 11:33-36 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out!...

1 Peter 1:20 Who truly was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you,

1 Peter 2:8 And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient...

Jude 1:4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men...

Revelation 13:8 And all that dwell on the earth shall worship him...

ye have.

Acts 3:13-15 The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his Son Jesus; whom you delivered up...

Acts 4:10,11 Be it known to you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you crucified...

Acts 5:30 The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you slew and hanged on a tree.

Acts 7:52 Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? and they have slain them which showed before of the coming of the Just One...

Genesis 50:20 But as for you, you thought evil against me; but God meant it to good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive.

Matthew 27:20-25 But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus...

November 25 Evening
Whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall he saved.--ACTS 2:21. Manasseh did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, after the abominations of the heathen, and he reared up altars for Baal. And he built altars for all the host of heaven in the two courts of the house of the Lord. And he made his son pass through the fire, and observed times, and used enchantments, and dealt with familiar spirits and wizards: he wrought much wickedness in the sight of the Lord, to provoke him to anger.--And
Anonymous—Daily Light on the Daily Path

Text: Acts 2, 1-13. 1 And when the day of Pentecost was now come, they were all together in one place. 2 And suddenly there came from heaven a sound as of the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. 3 And there appeared unto them tongues parting asunder, like as of fire; and it sat upon each one of them. 4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance. 5 Now there were dwelling at Jerusalem
Martin Luther—Epistle Sermons, Vol. II

Peter's First Sermon
'This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses. 33. Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, He hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear. 34. For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand, 35. Until I make Thy foes Thy footstool. 36. Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture: The Acts

The Historical and Spiritual Causes of the Death of Christ
"Him, being by the determined will and foreknowledge of God given up, through the hand of lawless men, ye affixed to a cross and slew."--ACTS II. 23. St. Paul places this in the very forefront of that gospel which, as it had been delivered to him, so he in his turn had delivered to the Corinthians, that "Christ died for our sins." Neglecting all, deeper interpretations of this, it is at least clear that in the apostle's mind there was the closest and most intimate connexion between the death of
J. H. Beibitz—Gloria Crucis

Cross References
Isaiah 10:7
But this is not what he intends, this is not what he has in mind; his purpose is to destroy, to put an end to many nations.

Isaiah 37:26
"Have you not heard? Long ago I ordained it. In days of old I planned it; now I have brought it to pass, that you have turned fortified cities into piles of stone.

Matthew 20:19
and will hand him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life!"

Matthew 27:35
When they had crucified him, they divided up his clothes by casting lots.

Mark 15:24
And they crucified him. Dividing up his clothes, they cast lots to see what each would get.

Luke 22:22
The Son of Man will go as it has been decreed. But woe to that man who betrays him!"

Luke 23:33
When they came to the place called the Skull, they crucified him there, along with the criminals--one on his right, the other on his left.

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