The third, Absalom the son of Maachah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur: the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Absalom.—David’s favourite and rebellious son (2 Samuel 15-19). The common Heb. text has “to Absalom;” but a number of MSS. and all the old versions read Absalom. Rabbi D. Kimchi gives the characteristic explanation that L-ABSHALOM alludes to LO-ABSHALOM, “not Absalom”—that is, not a “father of peace,” but a rebel.
Maachah . . . Geshur.—See 1Chronicles 2:23.
Adonijah the son of Haggith.—Who would have succeeded his father, and was put to death by Solomon (1 Kings 1, 1Kings 2:19-25).1 Chronicles 2:9, 1 Chronicles 2:15, and traces out the family of David - the royal house of the tribe of Judah.
Daniel - See the marginal note and reference.
There are three lists of the sons of David, born in Jerusalem.
2 Samuel 5:14-16 1 Chronicles 3:5-8 1 Chronicles 14:4-7 1. Shammuah Shimeah* Shammuah 2. Shobab Shobab Shobab 3. Nathan Nathan Nathan 4. Solomon Solomon Solomon 5. Ibhar Ibhar Ibhar 6. Elishua Elishama* Elishua 7. a Eliphelet* Elpalet* 8. a Nogah Nogah 9. Nepheg Nepheg Nepheg 10. Japhia Japhia Japhia 11. Elishama Elishama Elishama 12. Eliada Eliada Beeliada* 13. Eliphelet Eliphelet Eliphelet (Differences are marked with an asterick).
A comparison of the three lists serves to show:
(1) that "Shimeah" and the first "Elishama" in the list of this chapter are corruptions;
(2) that David had really 13 sons born in Jerusalem, of whom two - the first Eliphelet and Nogah - probably died in their childhood; and
(3) that Eliada, the twelfth son, was also called Beeliada, the term Baal, "lord," not having (previous to the introduction of the Baal worship) a bad sense, but being regarded as an equivalent with El, "God."
1Ch 3:1-9. Sons of David.
1-3. Now these were the sons of David, which were born unto him in Hebron—It is of consequence for the proper understanding of events in the domestic history of David, to bear in mind the place and time of his sons' birth. The oldest son, born after his father's accession to the sovereign authority, is according to Eastern notions, the proper heir to the throne. And hence the natural aspirations of ambition in Ammon, who was long unaware of the alienation of the crown, and could not be easily reconciled to the claims of a younger brother being placed above his own (see on 2Sa 3:1-5).2 Samuel 3:2, only here the second son is called Daniel, who there goes by the name of Chileab; he had two names, the reason of which see there; and here David's wife, Eglah, is said in the Targum to be Michal, Saul's daughter; see Gill on 2 Samuel 3:5, to which is added an account of his reign both in Hebron and Jerusalem, agreeably to 2 Samuel 5:5. The third, Absalom the son of Maachah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur: the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith:
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)2. Geshur] Cp. 1 Chronicles 2:23, note.1 Chronicles 2:50. The superscription, "These are the sons (descendants) of Caleb," is more accurately defined by the addition, "the son of Hur, the first-born of Ephratah;" and by this definition the following lists of Caleb's descendants are limited to the families descended from his son Hur. That the words וגו בּן־חוּר are to be so understood, and not as apposition to כּלב, "Caleb the son of Hur," is shown by 1 Chronicles 2:19, according to which Hur is a son of Caleb and Ephrath. On that account, too, the relationship of Hur to Caleb is not given here; it is presupposed as known from 1 Chronicles 2:19. A famous descendant of Hur has already been mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:20, viz., Bezaleel the son of Uri. Here, in 1 Chronicles 2:50 and 1 Chronicles 2:51, three sons of Hur are named, Shobal, Salma, and Hareph, with the families descended from the first two. All information is wanting as to whether these sons of Hur were brothers of Uri, or his cousins in nearer or remoter degree, as indeed is every means of a more accurate determination of the degrees of relationship. Both בּן and הוליד in genealogies mark only descent in a straight line, while intermediate members of a family are often omitted in the lists. Instead of בּן־חוּר, בּני־חוּר might have been expected, as two sons are mentioned. The singular בּן shows that the words are not to be fused with the following into one sentence, but, as the Masoretic punctuation also shows, are meant for a superscription, after which the names to be enumerated are ranged without any more intimate logical connection. For the three names are not connected by the w copul. They stand thus: "sons of Hur, the first-born of Ephratah; Shobal...Salma...Hareph." Shobal is called father of Kirjath-jearim, now Kureyet el Enab (see on Joshua 9:17). Salma, father of Bethlehem, the birth-place of David and Christ. This Salma is, however, not the same person as Salma mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:11 and Ruth 4:20 among the ancestors of David; for the latter belonged to the family of Ram, the former to the family of Caleb. Hareph is called the father of Beth-Geder, which is certainly not the same place as Gedera, Joshua 15:36, which lay in the Shephelah, but is probably identical with Gedor in the hill country, Joshua 15:58, west of the road which leads from Hebron to Jerusalem (vide on 1 Chronicles 12:4). Nothing further is told of Hareph, but in the following verses further descendants of both the other sons of Hur are enumerated.
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