1 Kings 2:39
And it came to pass at the end of three years, that two of the servants of Shimei ran away to Achish son of Maachah king of Gath. And they told Shimei, saying, Behold, your servants be in Gath.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(39) Achish son of Maachah.—In 1Samuel 27:2 we read of Achish son of Maoch, king of Gath; but chronology makes it most unlikely that the same person should here be referred to. The name may have been hereditary.

1 Kings 2:39-40. Achish king of Gath — A king, but subject and tributary, first to David, and then to Solomon: permitted to enjoy the title and honour of a king, but not the full power: whence it was, that Achish could not keep these servants, though they had fled to him for protection; but suffered Shimei to take them away from his royal city. Shimei arose and went to Gath to seek his servants — In three years’ time he thought Solomon might have forgotten his injunction, or he presumed he would not hold him strictly to it, especially since he did not go from Jerusalem for his pleasure, but to recover what he had lost, which he thought was pardonable, these servants being probably worth a great deal of money. “By seeking his servants,” says Bishop Hall, “he lost himself. These earthly things either are, or should be, our servants. How commonly do we see men run out of the bounds set by God’s laws, to hunt after them, till their souls incur a fearful judgment!”2:35-46 The old malignity remains in the unconverted heart, and a watchful eye should be kept on those who, like Shimei, have manifested their enmity, but have given no evidence of repentance. No engagements or dangers will restrain worldly men; they go on, though they forfeit their lives and souls. Let us remember, God will not accommodate his judgment to us. His eye is over us; and let us strive to walk as in his presence. Let our every act, word, and thought, be governed by this great truth, that the hour is quickly coming when the smallest circumstances of our lives shall be brought to light, and our eternal state be fixed by a righteous and unerring God. Thus Solomon's throne was established in peace, as the type of the Redeemer's kingdom of peace and righteousness. And it is a comfort, in reference to the enmity of the church's enemies, that, how much soever they rage, it is a vain thing they imagine. Christ's throne is established, and they cannot shake it.Achish - Possibly the Achish of the marginal reference, but more probably the grandson of the former Achish. 36. the king sent and called for Shimei—He was probably residing at Bahurim, his native place. But, as he was a suspicious character, Solomon condemned him henceforth to live in Jerusalem, on the penalty of death, for going without the gates. He submitted to this confinement for three years, when, violating his oath, he was arrested and put to death by Solomon for perjury, aggravated by his former crime of high treason against David [1Ki 2:42-44]. Achish son of Maachah king of Gath; a king, but subject and tributary, first to David, and then to Solomon. This might be either that Achish who showed so much kindness to David, 1Sa 27,1Sa 28, or his son; who, in requital of this kindness, was still permitted to enjoy the title and honour of a king, but not the full power; whence it was that Achish could not, or durst not, keep these servants, though they had fled to him for protection, but suffered Shimei to take them away from his royal city. And it came to pass, at the end of three years,.... He had dwelt at Jerusalem:

that two of the servants of Shimei ran away to Achish the son of Maachah king of Gath; and they told Shimei, saying, behold, thy servant be in Gath; he being a churlish, ill-natured man, always cursing or beating them, or imposing too hard service upon them, or not allowing them the necessaries of life; wherefore they broke away from him, and fled to Gath, and put themselves under the protection of the king of that place, who was now at peace with Israel, and a tributary to them: if this Achish was the same that was David's friend, who sheltered him when persecuted by, Saul, he must be an old man; for that was between forty or fifty years ago; and as he seems to be, since he is called the son of Maoch, 1 Samuel 27:2; which may be thought to be the same with Maachah here.

And it came to pass at the end of three years, that two of the {s} servants of Shimei ran away unto Achish son of Maachah king of Gath. And they told Shimei, saying, Behold, thy servants be in Gath.

(s) Thus God appoints the ways and means to bring his just judgments on the wicked.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
39. two of the servants of Shimei] Shimei appears to have been a man of wealth, both from this circumstance, and from his ability to establish himself in Jerusalem as soon as Solomon commanded him. The servants may have been Philistines.

Achish son of Maachah king of Gath] The Achish to whom David fled on two occasions (1 Samuel 21:10; 1 Samuel 27:2) is called the son of Maoch, which may be only another form of Maachah. But the time which elapsed between David’s flight and the death of Shimei makes it doubtful whether the same man was king still. The same royal names were so frequently carried on in alternate generations that the similarity need not surprise us. So Hannibal was the son of Hamilcar, and Hamilcar the son of a former Hannibal.

they told Shimei] i.e. Some persons who had come to know of the whereabouts of the servants.Verse 39. - And it came to pass at the of three years that two of the servants of Shimei ran away [it has been thought by some that their flight was preconcerted with their master. But the narrative does not favour this supposition] to Achish, son of Maachah, king of Gath. [This may well have been the "Achish, son of Maoch" (1 Samuel 21:11; 1 Samuel 27:2), to whom David fled fifty years before. Longer reigns than this are not unknown to history. Or it may have been his grandson]. And they told Shimei, saying, Behold, thy servants be in Gath. Execution of Joab. - When the report (of the execution of Adonijah and the deposition of Abiathar) came to Joab, he fled to the tent of Jehovah (not to the tabernacle, but to the holy tent upon Zion) to seek protection at the altar (see at 1 Kings 1:50). The words נטה לא...יואב כּי are introduced as a parenthesis to explain Joab's flight: "for Joab had leaned after Adonijah," i.e., taken his side (אהרי נטה, as in Exodus 23:2; Judges 9:3), "but not after Absalom."

(Note: Instead of אבשׁלום the lxx (Cod. Vat.), Vulgate, Syr., and Arab. have adopted the reading שּׁלמה, and both Thenius and Ewald propose to alter the text accordingly. But whatever plausibility this reading may have, especially if we alter the preterite נטה into the participle נטה after the ἦν κεκλικώς of the lxx, as Thenius does, it has no other foundation than an arbitrary rendering of the lxx, who thought, but quite erroneously, that the allusion to Absalom was inapplicable here. For אחר נטה, to take a person's side, would suit very well in the case of Adonijah and Absalom, but not in that of Solomon, whose claim to the throne was not a party affair, but had been previously determined by God.)

There is no foundation in the biblical text for the conjecture, that Joab had given Adonijah the advice to ask for Abishag as his wife, just as Ahithophel had given similar advice to Absalom (2 Samuel 16:21). For not only is there no intimation of anything of the kind, but Solomon punished Joab solely because of his crimes in the case of Abner and Amasa. Moreover, Abiathar was also deposed, without having any fresh machinations in favour of Adonijah laid to his charge. The punishment of Adonijah and Abiathar was quite sufficient to warn Joab of his approaching fate, and lead him to seek to save his life by fleeing to the altar. It is true that, according to Exodus 21:13-14, the altar could afford no protection to a man who had committed two murders. But he probably thought no more of these crimes, which had been committed a long time before, but simply of his participation in Adonijah's usurpation; and he might very well hope that religious awe would keep Solomon from putting him to death in a holy place for such a crime as that. And it is very evident that this hope was not altogether a visionary one, from the fact that, according to Exodus 21:30, when Joab refused to leave the altar at the summons addressed to him in the name of the king, Benaiah did not give him the death-blow at once, but informed Solomon of the fact and received his further commands. Solomon, however, did not arrest the course of justice, but ordered him to be put to death there and afterwards buried. The burial of the persons executed was a matter of course, as, according to Deuteronomy 21:23, even a person who had been hanged was to be buried before sunset. When, therefore, Solomon gives special orders for the burial of Joab, the meaning is that Benaiah is to provide for the burial with distinct reference to the services which Joab had rendered to his father. "And take away the blood, which Joab shed without cause, from me and my father's house." So long as Joab remained unpunished for the double murder, the blood-guiltiness rested upon the king and his house, on whom the duty of punishment devolved (cf. Numbers 35:30-31; Deuteronomy 19:13). חנּם דּמי, blood without cause, i.e., blood shed in innocence. On the connection of the adverb with the substantive, at which Thenius takes offence, comp. Ges. 151, 1, and Ewald, 287, d. - For V. 32, compare Deuteronomy 21:5. The words of Solomon in v. 33a point back to the curse which David uttered upon Joab and his descendants after the murder of Abner (2 Samuel 3:28-29). "But to David, and his seed, and his house, and his throne, let there be salvation for ever from Jehovah." This wish sprang from a conviction, based upon 2 Samuel 7:14, that the Lord would not fulfil His promise to David unless his successors upon the throne exercised right and justice according to the command of the Lord.

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