1 Samuel 16:10
Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto Jesse, The LORD hath not chosen these.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10) Seven of his sons.—These seven, with David, the youngest, make eight. In 1Chronicles 2:13-15 only seven of the family are recorded: one apparently of that bright band of youths died young.

1 Samuel 16:10. Again (or rather, Thus) Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel — Not all at once, but seven in all, one after another, in order, David being the eighth. See 1 Samuel 17:12. Probably, however, one of these was either only an adopted son, or was born of a concubine, and therefore is not noticed 1 Chronicles 2:13; 1 Chronicles 2:15, where only seven of Jesse’s sons are named, and David is said to have been the seventh. Samuel said unto Jesse, The Lord hath not chosen these — These words show that Samuel had acquainted Jesse with his business.

16:6-13 It was strange that Samuel, who had been so disappointed in Saul, whose countenance and stature recommended him, should judge of another man by that rule. We can tell how men look, but God can tell what they are. He judges of men by the heart. We often form a mistaken judgment of characters; but the Lord values only the faith, fear, and love, which are planted in the heart, beyond human discernment. And God does not favour our children according to our fond partiality, but often most honours and blesses those who have been least regarded. David at length was pitched upon. He was the youngest of the sons of Jesse; his name signifies Beloved; he was a type of God's beloved Son. It should seem, David was least set by of all the sons of Jesse. But the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward. His anointing was not an empty ceremony, a Divine power went with that instituted sign; he found himself advanced in wisdom and courage, with all the qualifications of a prince, though not advanced in his outward circumstances. This would satisfy him that his election was of God. The best evidence of our being predestinated to the kingdom of glory, is, our being sealed with the Spirit of promise, and experience of a work of grace in our hearts.Seven - i. e., including the three who had already passed. It appears that Jesse had eight sons; but in 1 Chronicles 2:13-15, only seven are ascribed to him. 6-10. Samuel said, Surely the Lord's anointed is before him—Here Samuel, in consequence of taking his impressions from the external appearance, falls into the same error as formerly (1Sa 10:24). Seven of his sons, i.e. the rest of his sons, which were seven, besides David; for in all he had eight, 1 Samuel 17:12. It is true, there are but seven of them named 1 Chronicles 2:13-15, but that may be because one of them was either born of a concubine, or an obscure person; or one that died immediately after this time.

Again Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel,.... Not seven more, for he had but eight sons in all with David, 1 Samuel 17:12 but four more, which with the other three made seven; three of these four are mentioned by name, Nathanael, Raddai, and Ozem, 1 Chronicles 2:14, but the fourth we nowhere read of; perhaps he died quickly after this, was an obscure person, and of no fame and note, or might be by another woman:

and Samuel said unto Jesse, the Lord hath not chosen these; not anyone of them.

Again, Jesse made seven of his sons to pass before Samuel. And Samuel said unto Jesse, The LORD hath not chosen these.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
1 Samuel 16:10When Jesse thereupon brought up his other sons, one after another, before Samuel, the prophet said in the case of each, "This also Jehovah hath not chosen." As Samuel must be the subject to the verb ויּאמר in 1 Samuel 16:8-10, we may assume that he had communicated the object of his coming to Jesse.
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