Haydock Catholic Bible Commentary
Wafers, (lagana.). They knead them with water, and afterwards fry or bake them with oil. (St. Isidore) Such wafers are very common in Italy. (Calmet)
Washed. The pagans never approached their mysteries, without divers purifications and washing. (Clement of Alexandria, strom. 5.) Exterior cleanliness was designed to signify the purity of the heart, with which we must appear before God. (Calmet) --- It is for this reason we take holy-water, when we go into our chapels, and we wash our fingers before and during Mass. (Haydock)
Vestments. No mention is made of breeches, because they had them on, while they were washing. (Ven. Bede) --- Belt. Septuagint have read esson, instead of chesheb. "Thou shalt tie the rational to the ephod." (Calmet)
Pour, in the form of a cross or T, according to many of the Rabbin, &c. The inferior priests were anointed only on the hands. The Levites were sprinkled with oil, mixed with the blood of the victims. The custom of anointing prophets, priests, and kings, was peculiar to the Jews; as if to foreshow Christ, the great anointed of the Lord. (St. Augustine; Psalm xliv.; Daniel ix. 24.)
Head. Confessing that they are sinners, and deserve to die. Thus they shall substitute the victim instead of themselves, and obtain pardon. In the holocaust, (ver. 15,) and the peace-offering, (ver. 19,) they impose their hands, having first washed them) and pronounce some prayer. (Calmet)
Beside. Al, is now wanting in the printed Hebrew and Samaritan, though expressed by the Protestant translators, (who often help their text) and by all the ancient versions. Kennicott mentions one manuscript, which retains it very properly. (Haydock) --- The victim was offered on the altar of holocausts, before the tabernacle, the seat of God's majesty. (Calmet) --- Moses was the priest on this occasion. (Menochius) (Psalm xcviii. 6.)
Horns. This was done in all the sacrifices of expiation. After Aaron was ordained, he carried the blood into the sanctuary, for the sins of all. (Calmet)
Burnt-offering, (incensum.) To evaporate like incense. (Menochius) --- God requires what is most fat and delicious. (Calmet) --- The Persians never reserved any of the victims for their idols, except the caul. (Strabo xv.)
Sin of the high priest and people. In the other sin-offerings, this was not done. (Menochius)
About, upon the altar, and at the foot of it. So the pagans did. (Eusebius, præp. iv. 9.)
Victim. Hebrew ishe, means a whole burnt-offering.
Tip, or "softer part," Septuagint. This ceremony insinuated, that the priests ought to be all attentive, and perform their office with diligence. (Philo, Vit. Mos. 3)
Rump, or tail, for which the sheep of Arabia were famed; some having tails three yards long, others a yard thick. (Herodotus, iii. 113.) They weighed from 12 to 30 pounds, and were almost all fat. (Calmet)
Roll. (torta) Hebrew kikkar, "a loaf." Septuagint, "a loaf or cake of oil." (Haydock)
Elevating, and then letting them descend towards the earth. After which, Moses lifted the victims towards the east and west, and from north to south, to shew that God is the Sovereign of the world. (R. Solomon) --- Cato (Rustic. 34,) mentions a similar custom, of agitating or waving bread, in honour of Janus and of Jupiter. (Calmet)
Israel. As these parts have been offered by Aaron to the Lord, so the Israelites shall present them to him and his sons, when they offer sacrifice. (Menochius) --- All the different kinds of victims were immolated on this occasion, because the priests were consecrated to offer them all. (Du Hamel)
Vesture. A new one was not made for every high priest. (Calmet) --- One of the other priests had to perform the ceremony of consecration. (Menochius)
Days. During which he could not leave the sanctuary, Leviticus viii. 33. On each day, the aforesaid ceremonies were to be repeated, ver. 35.
Holy place. The court of the tabernacle, where a constant fire was kept, to prepare the food of the priests, and sometimes of others, who wished to eat their share of the victims in the presence of the Lord.
Stranger. The Levites themselves could not partake of these things.
Seven. This number is frequently prescribed in Scripture. Balaam required seven altars, (Numbers xxiii.) and the Egyptians never spent less than seven days in their expiations. (Porphyrius, Abstin. 4.) (Calmet) --- Shall be holy, consecrated according to this rite, (Menochius) or defiled; for sacred things purify those who approach in a proper manner, while they defile or increase the guilt of the unworthy. (Calmet) --- By the unleavened bread, (ver. 23,) we are reminded of the blessed eucharist; and by oil, of the grace of the spirit. (Du Hamel)
Morning. About sun-rise. --- Evening, or between the two vespers, Exodus xii. 6. The lambs were provided by the people; flour, wine, and oil, by the priests. (Philo) --- The wine was poured at the foot of the altar, the flour and oil were burnt upon it, and not placed on the head of the victim, as was customary among the pagans, frontique invergit vina sacerdos. (Virgil, vi.; Maimonides) By these sacrifices, God was to be adored as the author both of day and night; (Menochius) and we are admonished of our duty of praying to him, particularly at those times. (Haydock) --- All the sacrifices prefigured that of Christ, (St. Augustine, contra advers. i. 18,) but none more than these of lambs. (Origen in Jo.) (Worthington)
Part of an epha, half of which was used in each sacrifice.
Glory, or presence, or by the flame which shall come down from heaven to consume the victim, Leviticus ix. 24. (Calmet)