Judges 20:10
And we will take ten men of an hundred throughout all the tribes of Israel, and an hundred of a thousand, and a thousand out of ten thousand, to fetch victual for the people, that they may do, when they come to Gibeah of Benjamin, according to all the folly that they have wrought in Israel.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(10) Ten men of an hundred.—A tenth of the nation, chosen probably by lot, is to be responsible for the commissariat. They do not anticipate any other difficulty.

17:7-13 Micah thought it was a sign of God's favour to him and his images, that a Levite should come to his door. Thus those who please themselves with their own delusions, if Providence unexpectedly bring any thing to their hands that further them in their evil way, are apt from thence to think that God is pleased with them.In order to make it possible for the force of Israel to keep the field, and do to the men of Gibeah what their wickedness deserved, every tenth man (40,000 in all) was appointed to find provisions for the whole army. Jud 20:8-17. Their Decree.

8-13. all the people arose as one man—The extraordinary unanimity that prevailed shows, that notwithstanding great disorders had broken out in many parts, the people were sound at the core; and remembering their national covenant with God, they now felt the necessity of wiping out so foul a stain on their character as a people. It was resolved that the inhabitants of Gibeah should be subjected to condign punishment. But the resolutions were conditional. For as the common law of nature and nations requires that an inquiry should be made and satisfaction demanded, before committing an act of hostility or vengeance, messengers were despatched through the whole territory of Benjamin, demanding the immediate surrender or execution of the delinquents. The request was just and reasonable; and by refusing it the Benjamites virtually made themselves a party in the quarrel. It must not be supposed that the people of this tribe were insensible or indifferent to the atrocious character of the crime that had been committed on their soil. But their patriotism or their pride was offended by the hostile demonstration of the other tribes. The passions were inflamed on both sides; but certainly the Benjamites incurred an awful responsibility by the attitude of resistance they assumed.

That they may do according to all the folly that they have wrought; that we may punish them as such a wickedness deserves.

In Israel: this is added as an aggravation, that they should do that in Israel, or among God’s peculiar people, which was esteemed abominable even among the heathen.

And we will take ten men of an hundred, throughout all the tribes of Israel,.... Excepting that of Benjamin which was not with them, not any of them:

and a hundred out of a thousand, and a thousand out of ten thousand; in all 40,000, out of the 400,000:

to fetch victual for the people; ten men were to provide food for ninety, and one hundred men for nine hundred, and 1000 men for 9000, in all 40,000, for 360,000; these were either to go to their own tribes and habitations, or to the towns and cities adjacent, to procure food for this large army; for they came from their homes without any provision, not knowing that the affair would keep them long; but perceiving that it would require time before it could be determined, they judged it the wisest method for some to be appointed to take care of provision for the army, that it might not be scattered about on that account, but pursue the war with vigour till satisfaction was obtained:

that they might do, when they came to Gibeah of Benjamin, according to all the folly that they have wrought in Israel; punish with death the delinquents, and chastise the inhabitants, and especially the magistrates, for their connivance at such wicked persons among them, and negligence of doing their duty.

And we will take ten men of an hundred throughout all the tribes of Israel, and an hundred of a thousand, and a thousand out of ten thousand, to fetch {g} victual for the people, that they may do, when they come to Gibeah of Benjamin, according to all the folly that they have wrought in Israel.

(g) Only these would be charged to provide food for the rest.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
10. ten men … ten thousand) All this merely amounts to ‘one man in ten’; 40,000 are to forage for the 360,000. We are reminded of the circumstantial diffuseness of P, e.g. Numbers 1:2; Numbers 1:20; Numbers 1:22 etc.; see Driver, Introd, p. 130. The style of the verse is remarkably poor; e.g. the single prep. lamedh = to is used nine times in a variety of senses; and the text is corrupt. The rendering that they may do when they come smooths over the awkwardness of the Hebr. The LXX. cod. A suggests a slight change and transposes the words, reading for the people that come to do to G. etc. The trouble lies in the expression for when they come (or that come); Moore and Budde would omit it as a gloss on the people; indeed there is no other way of obtaining a satisfactory sentence. The connexion is much improved by transposing the two halves of the v. and connecting with Jdg 20:9 : we will go up against it by lot, to do to G. of B. according to … in Israel; and we will take ten men … to fetch victual for the people (Moore). Geba (see marg.) is a mistake for Gibeah, cf. Jdg 20:33.

Judges 20:10Then all the people rose up as one man, saying, "We will not any of us go into his tent, neither will we any of us return to his house," sc., till this crime is punished. The sentence follows in Judges 20:9 : "This is the thing that we will do," i.e., this is the way in which we will treat Gibeah: "against it by lot" (sc., we will act). The Syriac gives the sense correctly - We will cast lots upon it; but the lxx quite erroneously supply ἀναβησόμεθα (we will go up); and in accordance with this, many expositors connect the words with Judges 20:10 in the following sense: "We will choose one man out of every ten by lot, to supply the army with the necessary provision during the expedition." This is quite a mistake, because in this way a subordinate point, which only comes into consideration in connection with the execution of the sentence, would be made the chief point, and the sentence itself would not be given at all. The words "against it by lot" contain the resolution that was formed concerning the sinful town, and have all the enigmatical brevity of judicial sentences, and are to be explained from the course laid down in the Mosaic law with regard to the Canaanites, who were to be exterminated, and their land divided by lot among the Israelites. Consequently the meaning is simply this: "Let us proceed with the lot against Gibeah," i.e., let us deal with it as with the towns of the Canaanites, conquer it, lay it in ashes, and distribute its territory by lot. In Judges 20:10 a subordinate circumstance is mentioned, which was necessary to enable them to carry out the resolution that had been made. As the assembled congregation had determined to keep together for the purpose of carrying on war (Judges 20:8), it was absolutely necessary that resources should be provided for those who were actively engaged in the war. For this purpose they chose one man in every ten "to fetch provision for the people," לבואם לעשׁות, "that they might do on their coming to Gibeah of Benjamin according to all the folly which had been done in Israel," i.e., might punish the wickedness in Gibeah as it deserved.
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