Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Then let them which be in Judsea.—The words were acted on when the time came. Eusebius (Hist. Eccl. iii. 5) records that the Christians of Judæa, acting “on a certain oracle,” fled, in A.D. 68, to Pella, a town on the northern boundary of Peræa. So Josephus (Wars, iv. 9, § 1; v. 10, § 1) more generally relates that many of the more conspicuous citizens fled from the city, as men abandon a sinking ship. The “mountains” may be named generally as a place of refuge, or may point, as interpreted by the event, to the Gilead range of hills on the east of Jordan.
The mountains - The mountains of Palestine abound in caves, a safe retreat for those who are pursued. In all ages these caves have been the favorite places of robbers, and they were also resorted to by those in danger, 1 Samuel 13:6; 1 Samuel 22:1; 2 Samuel 23:13; Joshua 10:16. In those mountains they would be safe.
Mt 24:1-51. Christ's Prophecy of the Destruction of Jerusalem, and Warnings Suggested by It to Prepare for His Second Coming. ( = Mr 13:1-37; Lu 21:5-36).
For the exposition, see on Mr 13:1-37.See Poole on "Matthew 24:18". Luke 21:21 and accordingly it is observed, that many did flee about this time; and it is remarked by several interpreters, and which Josephus (a) takes notice of with surprise, that Cestius Gallus having advanced with his army to Jerusalem, and besieged it, on a sudden, without any cause, raised the siege, and withdrew his army, when the city might have been easily taken; by which means a signal was made; and an opportunity given to the Christians, to make their escape: which they accordingly did, and went over Jordan, as Eusebius says (b), to a place called Pella; so that when Titus came a few mouths after, there was not a Christian in the city, but they had fled as they are here bidden to
flee into the mountains; or any places of shelter and refuge: these are mentioned particularly, because they are usually such; and design either the mountains in Judea, or in the adjacent countries. The Syriac and Persic versions read in the singular number, "into the mountain"; and it is reported that many of them did fly, particularly to Mount Libanus (c).Then let them which be in Judaea flee into the mountains:
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)Matthew 24:16 ff. Apodosis down to Matthew 24:18.
οἱ ἐν τ. Ἰουδ.] means those who may happen to be living in the country of Judaea (John 3:22), in contradistinction to Jerusalem with its holy place, the abominations in which are to be the signal for flight.
μὴ καταβαινέτω, κ.τ.λ.] Some have conceived the idea to be this: “ne per scalas interiores, sed exteriores descendat,” Bengel (Grotius, Wetstein); or: let him flee over the roofs (over the lower walls, separating house from house, till he comes to the city wall, Michaelis, Kuinoel, Fritzsche, Paulus, Winer, Kaeuffer). Both views may be taken each according to circumstances.
τὰ ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας αὐτοῦ] common attraction for τὰ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας. See Kühner, I. 474, and ad Xen. Mem. iii. 6. 11; Winer, p. 584 [E. T. 784].
ἐν τῷ ἀγρῷ] where, being at work, he has no upper garment with him.
People will have to flee to save their lives (Matthew 24:22); not according to the idea imported by Hofmann: to escape the otherwise too powerful temptation to deny the Lord. This again is decisively refuted by the fact that, in Matthew 24:16-19, it is not merely the disciples or believers who are ordered to flee, but the summons to do so is a general one. What is said with reference to the flight does not assume an individualizing character till Matthew 24:20.Matthew 24:16. οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰ., those in Judaea who have no part in the struggle, with special reference to disciples of Jesus. There would naturally be some in the city, therefore the counsel to fly must refer to a point of time antecedent to the commencement of the siege.—ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη, to the mountains outside of Judaea, i.e., east of the Jordan; general as befits prophetic speech. The actual place of refuge was Pella, as we learn from Eusebius, H. E., iii., 5, 3.16. let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains] Many Christians, warned by this prediction (according to Euseblus, H.E. iii. 5, “by a certain oracle”), took refuge at Pella in Peræa during the siege of Jerusalem.Matthew 24:16. Τότε, then) This answers to πότε, when, in Matthew 24:3. The word “then” often occurs in this discourse.—οἱ ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ, those that are in Judea) not all the Jews, nor Christians dwelling elsewhere; but those who, believing the word of Jesus, should be in Judea.—φευγέτωσαν, let them flee) without hope that the siege might be raised.—ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη, into the mountains) Safety was here promised in the mountains: and it was afterwards found there at Pella. See Eusebius H. E. iii. 5. Jesus warns His followers not to think that they would be safe within the city, in opposition to the persuasion pertinaciously maintained during the actual siege by the carnal prudence of the Jews.Verse 16. - Then; i.e. when they shall see "the abomination of desolation," etc. Them which be in Judaea. Not only in Jerusalem, but in its vicinity, as most exposed to danger from the invading army. Flee into (ἐπὶ, over) the mountains. The Christians seem to have taken this advice when the city was attacked by Costius Gallus, about A.D. , some three or more years before the siege under Vespasian. Gallus had appeared before the walls, and apparently had every hope of taking the city, when, for some reason not certainly known (either owing to a supposed defeat, or ignorance of his own success, or the advice of his generals), he suddenly withdrew his forces (Josephus, 'Bell. Jud.,' 2:19, 6, 7). The Christians, bearing Christ's warning in mind, and having, as we may conjecture, seen the predicted sign, took the opportunity of flight from the doomed city, and made their escape to Pella, a town of Decapotis, southeast of Bethshean, and the ruins of which are known now by the name of Fahil. Euschius probably refers to this migration ('Hist. Eccl.,' 3:5), narrating that, owing to a certain revelation given to holy men among them, the whole body of the Church, before the war, removed across the Jordan to Pella, and dwelt there in safety during those troublous times. We probably, however, do not know the exact time of the flight, as we are ignorant of what was the warning of imminent danger which rendered this hurried proceeding necessary.
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