You, even you, are LORD alone; you have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and you preserve them all; and the host of heaven worships you.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Preservest them all.—In this comprehensiveness reproduced only in Hebrews 1:3.
The host of heaven.—First the stars, but here the angels (Psalm 103:21).Nehemiah 9:6. Thou, even thou, art Lord alone — Jehovah, the self-existent and independent being; there is no God beside thee; thou hast made heaven, &c. — They acknowledged the God they worshipped to be the supreme Sovereign, the Lord over all, who had created all things whatsoever, who preserved them by his providence, and therefore had a sovereign dominion over all. And the host of heaven worshippeth thee — The angels, archangels, cherubim, and seraphim, and all the inhabitants of heaven, of whatever order, acknowledge thee as the universal King.1 Kings 22:19; Psalm 103:21. The host of heaven; either,
1. The stars, which after their manner worship and praise God, as all the creatures do after their manner, of which see Psalm 148; or rather,
2. The angels, who are so called, as 1 Kings 22:19 Luke 2:13, who do worship God truly and properly. And it is most usual and reasonable to understand all words properly, where there is no need of a figurative interpretation. And if this were understood of metaphorical and objective worshipping of God, there seems to be no reason to appropriate that to the host of heaven, to wit, the stars, seeing the hosts of sea and earth do in that sense worship God no less than the stars do, namely, in giving angels and men matter and occasion of worshipping and praising of God.
thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host; the airy and starry heavens, and the sun, moon, and stars in them, and the third heaven, the seat of God, angels, and saints:
the earth, and all things that are therein; men, beasts, trees, metals, minerals, &c.
the seas, and all that is therein; fishes, sea plants, &c. see Acts 4:24,
and thou preservest them all; they consist in thee, and are upheld in their being by thee, Hebrews 1:3Thou, even thou, art LORD alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth thee.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)6. Thou, even thou, art Lord alone] R.V. Thou art the LORD, even thou alone. The confession opens with a declaration of the unity of the God of Israel. Jehovah alone is: He alone made the worlds and led Israel. Cf. Psalm 83:18, ‘That they may know that thou alone, whose name is Jehovah (marg. thou whose name alone is Jehovah) art the Most High above all the earth,’ Isaiah 44:6.
made] ‘fecisti’ not ‘creasti,’ ‘âsah’ not ‘bara;’ no reference to Genesis 1:1; Genesis 2:1.
heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host] For ‘the heaven’ and ‘the heaven of heavens,’ cf. Deuteronomy 10:14; 1 Kings 8:27; 2 Chronicles 2:6; 2 Chronicles 6:18; Psalm 148:4. It denotes ‘the heavens’ in their plenitude, the clouds, and the wonders of the sky, the stars and the whole sidereal world.
therein] R.V. thereon.
therein] R.V. in them, giving emphasis to the use of the plural.
preservest] literally, ‘givest life to,’ ‘quickenest;’ LXX. ζωοποιεῖς. Vulg. ‘vivificas,’ an allusion to the continuity of Divine operation in relation to the Universe. Cf. Job 33:4; John 5:17.
the host of heaven] Does this refer to the stars and the powers of the sky, or to the angelic beings? The words, being separated from the phrase, ‘all their host’ and following upon the mention of the seas and the earth, most probably mean the created spirits, a distinct group of created things, 1 Kings 22:19; Psalm 103:21.Verse 6. - Thou art Lord alone. Compare Psalm 86:10 and Isaiah 27:16. In the latter passage the phrase used is almost identical. The heaven of heavens. Compare Deuteronomy 10:14; 1 Kings 8:27; Psalm 148:4. The expression has been explained as -
1. The very highest heaven;
2. The heavens in all their infinity,
The latter sense best suits the various passages where the phrase occurs. With all their host. The "host of heaven" has been taken to mean -
1. The angels;
2. The stars.
By the immediate context the stars would seem to be here intended; but the last clause of the verse is more properly applicable to the angels. Still, it must be remembered that, according to H.S. (Psalm 148:3), even the stars "praise" God. Thou preservest them all. The preservation of all created things by him who called them into being is scarcely taught in the Old Testament elsewhere than in this passage. The Psalmist says in one place, "Thou preservest man and beast" (Psalm 36:6); but this acknowledgment falls very far short of the universality of the present passage. Man naturally, but foolishly, fancies that things once created are able to preserve themselves. Exact thought sees, that if all things have been produced from nothing, it requires precisely the same power to sustain as originally to produce them. Hence "preservation" has been called "a continual creation." Deuteronomy 31:10. The last day was the seventh, for the eighth as a עצרת did not belong to the feast of tabernacles; see rem. on Leviticus 23:36. כּמּשׁפּט like 2 Chronicles 4:20, and elsewhere.
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