Vincent's Word Studies
I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom;
I charge (διαμαρτύρομαι)
See on 1 Timothy 5:21.
At his appearing (καὶ τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν)
Rend. "and by his appearing," ἐπιφάνειαν thus depending on διαμαρτύρομαι, and the accusative being the ordinary accusative of conjuration, with which by must be supplied. The A.V. follows the reading κατὰ at. For ἐπιφάνεια appearing, see on 1 Timothy 6:14; see on 2 Thessalonians 2:8. For, βασιλεία kingdom, see on Luke 6:20.
Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.
Be instant (ἐπίστηθι)
Better, be ready. Once in Paul, 1 Thessalonians 5:3. Frequent in Luke and Acts. Lit. stand by, be at hand, be present. To come suddenly upon, Luke 2:38. Hence, be ready. Instant signifies urgent, importunate, persevering. Lat. instare to press upon. Thus Latimer, "I preached at the instant request of a curate." So N.T., Romans 12:12, "Continuing instant in prayer."
In season (εὐκαίρως)
Only here and Mark 14:11. lxx once, Sir. 18:22. Comp. ἀκαιρεῖσθαι to have leisure or opportunity, Mark 6:31; 1 Corinthians 16:12 : εὐκαιρία opportunity, Matthew 26:16 : εὔκαιρος seasonable, convenient, Mark 6:21; Hebrews 4:16.
Out of season (ἀκαίρως)
N.T.o. lxx once, Sir. 35:4. Comp. ἀκαιρεῖσθαι to lack opportunity, Philippians 4:10. Timothy is not advised to disregard opportuneness, but to discharge his duty to those with whom he deals, whether it be welcome or not.
In Pastorals only here. oP. Mostly in the Synoptic Gospels, where it is frequent. It has two meanings: rebuke, as Matthew 8:26; Luke 17:3, and charge, as Matthew 12:16; Matthew 16:20, commonly followed by ἵνα that or λέγων saying (Matthew 20:31; Mark 1:25; Mark 3:12; Mark 8:30; Luke 4:35), but see Luke 9:21. The word implies a sharp, severe rebuke, with, possibly, a suggestion in some cases of impending penalty (τιμή); charge on pain of. This might go to justify the rendering of Holtzmann and von Soden, threaten. To charge on pain of penalty for disobedience implies a menace, in this case of future judgment.
See on consolation, Luke 6:24; see on comfort, Acts 9:31. Tischendorf changes the order of the three imperatives, reading ἔλεγξον, παρακάλεσον, ἐπιτίμησον. In that case there is a climax: first convict of error, then, exhort to forsake error, finally threaten with the penalty of persistence in error.
With all longsuffering and doctrine (ἐν πασῃ μακροθυμίᾳ)
Πάσῃ, every possible exhibition of longsuffering, etc. For doctrine rend. teaching. The combination is suggestive. Longsuffering is to be maintained against the temptations to anger presented by the obstinacy and perverseness of certain hearers; and such are to be met, not merely with rebuke, but also with sound and reasonable instruction in the truth. So Calvin: "Those who are strong only in fervor and sharpness, but are not fortified with solid doctrine, weary themselves in their vigorous efforts, make a great noise, rave,... make no headway because they build without foundation." Men will not be won to the truth by scolding. "They should understand what they hear, and learn by perceive why they are rebuked" (Bahnsen). Διδαχή teaching, only here and Titus 1:9 in Pastorals. The usual word is διδασκαλία. Paul uses both.
For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers, having itching ears;
Ground for the preceding exhortations in the future opposition to sound teaching.
Sound doctrine (τῆς ὑγιαινούσης διδασκαλίας)
Or healthful teaching. The A.V. overlooks the article which is important. The teaching plays a prominent part in these Epistles, and signifies more than teaching in general. See on 1 Timothy 1:10.
Shall they heap to themselves teachers (ἑαυτοῖς ἐπισωρεύ σουσιν διδασκάλους)
A vigorous and graphic statement. Ἑπισωρεύειν to heap up, N.T.o. Comp. σεσωρευμένα laden, 2 Timothy 3:6. The word is ironical; shall invite teachers en masse. In periods of unsettled faith, skepticism, and mere curious speculation in matters of religion, teachers of all kinds swarm like the flies in Egypt. The demand creates the supply. The hearers invite and shape their own preachers. If the people desire a calf to worship, a ministerial calf-maker is readily found. "The master of superstition is the people, and in all superstition wise men follow fools" (Bacon, Ess. 17).
Having itching ears (κνηθόμενοι τὴν ἀκοήν)
Or, being tickled in their hearing. Κνήθειν to tickle, N.T.o. olxx. Κνηθόμενοι itching. Hesychius explains, "hearing for mere gratification." Clement of Alexandria describes certain teachers as "scratching and tickling, in no human way, the ears of those who eagerly desire to be scratched" (Strom. v.). Seneca says: "Some come to hear, not to learn, just as we go to the theater, for pleasure, to delight our ears with the speaking or the voice or the plays" (Ephesians 108). Ἁκοή, A.V. ears, in N.T. a report, as Matthew 4:24; Matthew 14:1; Matthew 24:6 : in the plural, ears (never ear in singular), as Mark 7:35; Luke 7:1 : hearing, either the act, as Acts 28:26; Romans 10:17, or the sense, 1 Corinthians 12:17, here, and 2 Timothy 4:4.
And they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and shall be turned unto fables.
Shall be turned unto fables (ἐπὶ τοὺς μύθους ἐκτραπήσονται)
More correctly, will turn aside. The passive has a middle sense. For fables see on 1 Timothy 1:4.
But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions, do the work of an evangelist, make full proof of thy ministry.
Watch thou (σὺ νῆφε)
Endure afflictions (κακοπάθησον)
Of an evangelist (εὐαγγελιστοῦ)
Here, Acts 21:8 and Ephesians 4:11. In the last passage, a special function, with apostles, prophets, pastors, and teachers. A traveling, minister whose work was not confined to a particular church. So Philip, Acts 8:5-13, Acts 8:26-40. A helper of the apostles. An apostle, as such, was an evangelist (1 Corinthians 1:17), but every evangelist was not an apostle. In The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (about 100 a.d.) it is prescribed that an apostle shall not remain in one place longer than two days, and that when he departs he shall take nothing with him except enough bread to last until his next station (ch. xi).
Make full proof of thy ministry (τὴν διακονίαν σου πληροφόρησον)
Better, fulfill or fully perform. In Pastorals only here and 2 Timothy 4:17. See on Luke 1:1. In lxx once, Ecclesiastes 8:11, is fully persuaded. Only in this passage in the active voice. Comp. πληρώσαντες τὴν διακονίαν having fulfilled their ministration, Acts 12:25 : ἐπλήρου τὸν δρόμον was fulfilling his course, Acts 13:25, and τὸν δρόμον I have finished the course, 2 Timothy 4:7. For διακονίαν ministry, see on 1 Timothy 1:12.
For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand.
For I am now ready to be offered (ἐγὼ γὰρ ἤδη σπένδομαι)
I, emphatic contrast with σὺ thou, 2 Timothy 4:5. Already. What he is now suffering is the beginning of the end. Σπένδεσθαι to be poured out as a libation, only here and Philippians 2:17 (note). In the active voice quite often in lxx.
N.T.o. olxx. Comp. ἀναλῦσαι to depart, Philippians 1:23. The figure is explained by some of loosing a ship from its moorings; by others of breaking camp. In Philippians the latter is the more probable explanation, because Paul's situation in the custody of the Praetorians at Rome would naturally suggest a military metaphor, and because he is habitually sparing of nautical metaphors. Comp. 2 Corinthians 5:1, and Clement of Rome, ad 1 Corinthians 44:"Blessed are the presbyters who have gone before, seeing that their departure (ἀνάλυσιν) was fruitful and ripe."
I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith:
I have fought a good fight (τὸν καλὸν ἀγῶνα ἠγώνισμαι)
I have kept the faith (τὴν πίστιν τετήρηκα)
Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.
Lit. as to what remains. Λοιπὸν or τὸ λοιπὸν either finally, as 2 Corinthians 13:11; or henceforth as here, Mark 14:41; 1 Corinthians 7:29, Hebrews 10:13 : or for the rest, besides, as 1 Thessalonians 4:1 (note); 2 Thessalonians 3:1.
There is laid up (ἀπόκειται)
A crown of righteousness (ὃ τῆς δικαιοσύνης στέφανος)
The phrase N.T.o. See on στεφανοῦται is crowned, 2 Timothy 2:5. Rend. the crown.
Shall give (ἀποδώσει)
Most frequent in Synoptic Gospels. It may mean to give over or away, as Matthew 27:58; Acts 5:8; Hebrews 12:16 : or to give back, recompose, as here, Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6, Matthew 6:18; Romans 2:6.
At that day (ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ)
See on 2 Timothy 1:12.
That love his appearing (τοῖς ἠγαπηκόσι τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν αὐτοῦ)
For love rend. have loved. Appearing, Christ's second coming: see on 1 Timothy 6:14; see on 2 Thessalonians 2:8. The phrase N.T.o. Some have interpreted appearing as Christ's first coming into the world, as 2 Timothy 1:10; but the other sense is according to the analogy of 1 Corinthians 2:9; Philippians 3:20; Hebrews 9:28.
Do thy diligence to come shortly unto me:
Do thy diligence (σπούδασον)
"And night and day dide ever his diligence
Hir for to please."
Manciple's T. 141.
"And ech of hem doth al his diligence
To doon un-to the feste reverence."
Clerke's T. 195
For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia.
A contraction of Demetrius or Demarchus. He is mentioned Colossians 4:13 and Plm 1:24. It is supposed that he was a Thessalonian. On leaving Paul he went to Thessalonica; and in Philemon his name is mentioned next to that of Aristarchus the Thessalonian. That no epithet is attached to his name in Colossians 4:14 (comp. "Luke the beloved physician") may be a shadow of Demas's behavior mentioned here, in case Colossians was written later than 2ndTimothy.
Hath forsaken (ἐγκατέλειπεν)
In Pastorals here and 2 Timothy 4:16. See on 2 Corinthians 4:9. The compounded preposition ἐν indicates a condition or circumstances in which one has been left, as the common phrase left in the lurch. Comp. Germ. im Stiche.
Having loved (ἀγαπήσας)
The participle is explanatory, because he loved.
This present world (τὸν νῦν αἰῶνα)
Most probably Galatia. See Introd. to Galatians. Eusebius (H. E. iii. 4) says: "Paul testifies that Crescens was sent to Gaul (Γαλλίαν)." Tischendorf adopts this reading.
Part of the country known generally as Illyricum, along the eastern coast of the Adriatic. See Romans 15:19.
Only Luke is with me. Take Mark, and bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me for the ministry.
See Introd. to Luke. His connection with Paul appears first in Acts 16:10. He remained at Philippi after Paul's departure, and was there seven years later, when Paul revisited the city (Acts 20:5, Acts 20:6). He accompanied Paul to Jerusalem (Acts 21:15), after which we lose sight of him until he appears at Caesarea (Acts 27:2), whence he accompanies Paul to Rome. He is mentioned Colossians 4:14 and Plm 1:24.
Mentioned Colossians 4:10; Plm 1:24; 1 Peter 5:13. Probably John Mark (Acts 12:12, Acts 12:25; Acts 15:37), called the cousin of Barnabas (Colossians 4:10). The first mention of him since the separation from Paul (Acts 15:39) occurs in Colossians and Philemon. He is commended to the church at Colossae. In 1st Peter he sends salutations to Asia. In both Colossians and Philemon his name appears along with that of Demas. In Colossians he is named shortly before Luke and along with Aristarchus who does not appear here. He (Mark) is about to come to Asia where 2nd Timothy finds him. The appearance in Colossians of Aristarchus with Mark and of Demas with Luke is probably the point of connection with the representation in 2ndTimothy.
Profitable for the ministry (εὔχρηστος εἰς διακονίαν)
And Tychicus have I sent to Ephesus.
A comparatively uncommon name in N.T., but found in inscriptions of Asia Minor and on Asiatic coins. He is mentioned Acts 20:4, Acts 20:5; Ephesians 6:21; Colossians 4:7. In Acts 20:4 he is described as a native of proconsular Asia.
The cloke that I left at Troas with Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee, and the books, but especially the parchments.
The cloak (φελόνην)
Hesychius, however, explains as a γλωσσόκομον, originally a case for keeping the mouthpieces of wind-instruments; thence, generally, a box. Γλωσσόκομον is the word for the disciples' treasury-chest (bag, John 12:6). Also a box for transporting or preserving parchments. Specimens have been found at Herculaneum. In lxx, 2 Samuel 6:11, the ark of the Lord (but the reading varies): in 2 Chronicles 24:8, the chest placed by order of Joash at the gate of the temple, to receive contributions for its repair. Joseph. Ant. 6:1, 2, of the coffer into which the jewels of gold were put for a trespass-offering when the ark was sent back (1 Samuel 6:8). Phrynicus defines it as "a receptacle for books, clothes, silver, or anything else." Φαιλόνης or φαινόλης a wrapper of parchments, was translated figuratively in Latin by toga or paenula "a cloak," sometimes of leather; also the wrapping which a shopkeeper put round fish or olives; also the parchment cover for papyrus rolls. Accordingly it is claimed that Timothy is here bidden to bring, not a cloak, but a roll-case. So the Syriac Version. There seems to be no sufficient reason for abandoning the translation of A.V.
Not mentioned elsewhere.
The books (βιβλία)
Βίβλος or, βιβλίον was the term most widely used by the Greeks for book or volume. The usual derivation is from βύβλος the Egyptian papyrus. Comp. Lat. liber "the inner bark of a tree," also " book." Pliny (Nat. Hist. xiii. 11) says that the pith of the papyrus plant was cut in slices and laid in rows, over which other rows were laid crosswise, and the whole was massed by pressure. The name for the blank papyrus sheets was χάρτης (charta) paper. See on 2 John 1:12. Timothy is here requested to bring some papyrus documents which are distinguished from the vellum manuscripts.
N.T.o. Manuscripts written on parchment or vellum. Strictly speaking, vellum was made from the skins of young calves and the common parchment from those of sheep, goats, or antelopes. It was a more durable material than papyrus and more expensive. The Latin name was membrana, and also pergamena or pergamina, from Pergamum in Mysia where it was extensively manufactured, and from which it was introduced into Greece. As to the character and contents of these documents which Timothy is requested to bring, we are of course entirely ignorant.
Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord reward him according to his works:
Alexander the coppersmith
Did me much evil (πολλά μοι κακὰ ἐνεδείξατο)
Lit. shewed me much ill-treatment. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:16.
May the Lord reward (ἀποδώσει)
More correctly shall reward. A.V. follows the reading ἀποδω ῄ.
Of whom be thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood our words.
Greatly withstood (λίαν ἀντέστη)
Comp. 2 Timothy 3:8, and Galatians 2:11. This may refer to the occurrences at Ephesus (Acts 19:33), or to Alexander's attitude during Paul's trial. The former is more probable. Λίαν greatly, not in Paul, except in the compound ὑπερλίαν, 2 Corinthians 11:5; 2 Corinthians 12:11. Only here in Pastorals. Mostly in Synoptic Gospels.
At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me: I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge.
At my first answer (ἐν τῇ πρώτῃ μου ἀπολογίᾳ)
Ἁπολογία defense in a judicial trial. Comp. Acts 25:16. Also against private persons, as 1 Corinthians 9:3; 2 Corinthians 7:11. Defense of the gospel against its adversaries, as Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:16; comp. 1 Peter 3:15 (note). It is impossible to decide to what this refers. On the assumption of a second imprisonment of Paul (see Introduction) it would probably refer to a preliminary hearing before the main trial. It is not improbable that the writer had before his mind the situation of Paul as described in Philippians 1, since this Epistle shows at many points the influence of the Philippians letter. It should be noted, however, that ἀπολογία in Philippians 1:7, Philippians 1:16, has no specific reference to Paul's trial, but refers to the defense of the gospel under any and all circumstances. In any case, the first Romans imprisonment cannot be alluded to here. On that supposition, the omission of all reference to Timothy's presence and personal ministry at that time, and the words about his first defense, which must have taken place before Timothy left Rome (Philippians 2:19-23) and which is here related as a piece of news, are quite inexplicable.
Stood with me (παρεγένετο)
As a patron or an advocate. The verb mostly in Luke and Acts: once in Paul, 1 Corinthians 16:3 : only here in Pastorals. It means to place one's self beside; hence, to come to, and this latter sense is almost universal in N.T. In the sense of coming to or standing by one as a friend, only here.
Be laid to their charge (αὐτοῖς λογισθείη)
Notwithstanding the Lord stood with me, and strengthened me; that by me the preaching might be fully known, and that all the Gentiles might hear: and I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion.
See on 1 Timothy 1:12.
The preaching (τὸ κήρυγμα)
Might be fully known (πληροφορηθῇ)
Out of the mouth of the lion (ἐκ στόματος λέοντος)
Figurative expression for danger of death. Comp. 1 Corinthians 15:32. As usual, all manner of special references have been imagined: the lions of the amphitheatre; Nero; the chief accuser; the Jews; the Devil.
And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
Every evil work (ἐκ ἔργου πονηρου)
Every design and attempt against him and his work. Πονηρός evil cannot be limited to evil on its active side. See on 1 Corinthians 5:13. The word is connected at the root with πένεσθαι to be needy, and πονεῖν to toil; and this connection opens a glimpse of that sentiment which associated badness with a poor and toiling condition. The word means originally full of or oppressed by labors; thence, that which brings annoyance or toil. Comp. ἡμέρα πονηρά evil day, Ephesians 5:16; Ephesians 6:13; ἕλκος πονηρὸν a grievous sore, Revelation 16:2.
Heavenly kingdom (τὴν βασιλείαν τὴν ἐπουράνιον)
The phrase N.T.o. Ἑπουράνιος heavenly only here in Pastorals. Mostly in Paul and Hebrews. Heavenly kingdom, here the future, glorified life, as 1 Corinthians 6:9, 1 Corinthians 6:10; 1 Corinthians 15:50; Luke 13:29. In the same sense, kingdom of Christ and of God, Ephesians 5:5; kingdom of their Father, Matthew 13:43; my Father's kingdom, Matthew 26:29; kingdom prepared for you, Matthew 25:34; eternal kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, 2 Peter 1:11.
Salute Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus.
Very often in Paul. The singular only here and Titus 3:15.
Prisca and Aquila
Profit-bringer. Comp. 2 Timothy 1:16. One of the punning names so common among slaves. Comp. Chresimus, Chrestus, Onesimus, Symphorus, all of which signify useful or helpful.
Erastus abode at Corinth: but Trophimus have I left at Miletum sick.
In Acts 19:22, sent by Paul with Timothy to Macedonia from Ephesus. Romans 16:23, the city-treasurer who sends salutations. He cannot be certainly identified with the one mentioned here. The writer merely selects names of well-known companions of Paul.
Do thy diligence to come before winter. Eubulus greeteth thee, and Pudens, and Linus, and Claudia, and all the brethren.
Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia
The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with you. Amen.
The Lord Jesus Christ be with thy spirit
Omit Jesus Christ. The closing benediction only here in this form.