Vincent's Word Studies
But speak thou the things which become sound doctrine:
Speak thou (λάλει)
Originally, to stand out; be conspicuous. Thus Homer, Od. viii. 172: μετὰ δὲ πρέπει ἀγρομένοισιν he is conspicuous among those who are assembled. Eurip. Hel. 215; Ζεὺς πρέπων δἰ αἰθερος Zeus shining clearly through the aether. Hence, to become conspicuously fit; to become; beseem. In N.T. in the impersonal forms πρέπον ἐστὶν it is becoming (Matthew 3:15); πρέπει it becometh (Ephesians 5:3); ἔπρεπεν it became (Hebrews 2:10). With a subject nominative, 1 Timothy 2:10; Hebrews 7:26.
That the aged men be sober, grave, temperate, sound in faith, in charity, in patience.
Aged men (πρεσβύτας)
Only here, Luke 1:18; Plm 1:9. To be understood of natural age, not of ecclesiastical position. Note that 1 Timothy 3, in treating of church officers, deals only with Bishops and Deacons. Nothing is said of Presbyters until chapter verse, where Timothy's relations to individual members of the church are prescribed. These church members are classified in this and the following verses as old men, old women, younger men, servants. In lxx πρεσβύτης is occasionally interchanged with πρεσβευτής ambassador. See 2 Chronicles 32:31; 1 Macc. 13:21; 14:21, 22; 2 Macc. 11:34.
The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things;
Aged women (πρεσβύτιδας)
N.T.o. See on πρεσβύτεραι, 1 Timothy 5:2.
N.T.o. See on καταστολή apparel, 1 Timothy 2:9. It means, primarily, condition or state. Once in lxx, 3 Macc 5:45, κατάστημα μανιῶδες the maddened state into which the war-elephants were excited. Hence the state in which one habitually bears himself - his deportment or demeanor.
As becometh holiness (ἱεροπρεπεῖς)
N.T.o. lxx, 4 Macc. 9:25; 11:20. In the Theages (wrongly ascribed to Plato), τῷ υἱεῖ τὸ ὄνομα ἔθου καὶ ἱεροπρεπές you have given your son (Theages) an honorable and reverend name (122 D). It means beseeming a sacred place, person, or matter. Thus Athenaeus, vii, of one who had given a sacred banquet, says that the table was ornamented ἱεροπρεπέστατα in a manner most appropriate to the sacred circumstances. The meaning here is becoming those who are engaged in sacred service. This is the more striking if, as there is reason to believe, the πρεσβύτιδες represented a quasi-official position in the church. See on 1 Timothy 5:3, and comp. 1 Timothy 2:10; Ephesians 5:3.
False accusers (διαβόλους)
Given to much wine (οἴνῳ πολλῷ δεδουλωμένας)
More correctly, enslaved to much wine. The verb only here in Pastorals. Comp. 1 Timothy 3:8.
Teachers of good things (καλοδιδασκάλους)
N.T.o. olxx, oClass.
That they may teach the young women to be sober, to love their husbands, to love their children,
They may teach (σωφρονίζωσι)
Better, school or train. N.T.o. olxx. The verb means to make sane or sober-minded; to recall a person to his senses; hence, to moderate, chasten, discipline.
To love their husbands, to love their children (φιλάνδρους εἶναι, φιλοτέκνους)
Lit. to be husband-lovers, children-lovers. Both adjectives N.T.o. olxx. Φίλανδρος in Class. not in this sense, but loving men or masculine habits; lewd. In the better sense often in epitaphs. An inscription at Pergamum has the following: Ἱούλιος Βάσσος Ὁτακιλίᾳ Πώλλῃ τῇ γλυκυτάτῃ γυναικί, φιλάνδρῳ καὶ φιλοτέκνῳ συμβιωσάσῃ ἀμέμπτως ἔτη λ, Julius Bassus to Otacilia Polla my sweetest wife, who loved her husband and children and lived with me blamelessly for thirty years.
To be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their own husbands, that the word of God be not blasphemed.
Keepers at home (οἰκουργούς)
Wrong. Rend. workers at home. N.T.o. olxx, oClass.
Not attributive of workers at home, but independent. Rend. kindly. The mistress of the house is to add to her thrift, energy, and strict discipline, benign, gracious, heartily kind demeanor. Comp. Matthew 20:15; 1 Peter 2:18; Acts 9:36. See on Acts 11:24; see on Romans 5:7.
Better, subject or in subjection. Frequent in Paul, but not often in the active voice. See on James 4:7; see on Romans 8:7; see on Philippians 3:21; and comp. 1 Corinthians 14:34; Ephesians 5:22; Colossians 3:18.
Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded.
In all things shewing thyself a pattern of good works: in doctrine shewing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity,
In all things (περὶ πάντα)
Shewing thyself (σεαυτὸν παρεχόμενος)
See on 1 Timothy 1:4. The phrase N.T.o. but occurs in Class., as, to show one's self holy or righteous; wise or skillful; παρέχειν to make himself scarce.
Const. with shewing. N.T.o. oClass. lxx once, Haggai 2:18. Omit sincerity.
Sound speech, that cannot be condemned; that he that is of the contrary part may be ashamed, having no evil thing to say of you.
Sound speech (λόγον ὑγιῆ)
That cannot be condemned (ἀκατάγνωστον)
N.T.o. oClass. See 2 Macc. 4:47.
He that is of the contrary part (ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας)
May be ashamed (ἐντραπῇ)
Evil thing (φαῦλον)
Exhort servants to be obedient unto their own masters, and to please them well in all things; not answering again;
To please them well in all things (ἐν πᾶσιν εὐαρέστους εἶναι)
Wrong. Const. in all things with to be in subjection. Note the position of ἐν πᾶσιν in 1 Timothy 3:11; 1 Timothy 4:15; 2 Timothy 2:7; 2 Timothy 4:5, and comp. ὑπακούειν κατὰ πάντα obey in all things, Colossians 3:20, Colossians 3:22; and ὑποτάσσεται - ἐν παντί is subject in everything, Ephesians 5:24. Ἑυάρεστος well pleasing, only here in Pastorals. Almost exclusively in Paul. See also Hebrews 13:21. Ευαρέστως acceptably, Hebrews 12:28.
Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things.
Only here and Acts 5:2, Acts 5:3. lxx, Joshua 7:1; 2 Macc. 4:32. Often in Class. From νόσφι apart. The fundamental idea of the word is to put far away from another; to set apart for one's self; hence to purloin and appropriate to one's own use. Purloin is akin to prolong: prolongyn or purlongyn "to put fer awey." Old French porloignier or purloignier.
Shewing all good fidelity (πᾶσαν πίστιν ἐνδεικνομένος ἀγαθήν)
The phrase N.T.o. This is the only instance in N.T. of ἀγαθός with πίστις.
Adorn the doctrine (τὴν διδασκαλίαν κοσμῶσιν)
The phrase N.T.o. For κοσμῶσιν adorn, see on 1 Timothy 2:9.
For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,
This teaching or doctrine which is to be adorned by the lives of God's servants - the teaching of the gospel - is now stated in Titus 2:11-15.
The grace of God (ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ)
That bringeth salvation (σωτήριος)
Lit. saving. N.T.o. Const. with χαρις grace. The saving grace of God.
Hath appeared (ἐπεφάνη)
Only in Pastorals, Luke, and Acts. In the active voice, to bring to light, show. See on ἐπιφάνεια appearing, 1 Timothy 6:14.
To all men
Const. with that bringeth salvation, not with hath appeared.
The grace of God which is saving for all men
Comp. 1 Timothy 2:4.
Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;
Worldly lusts (κοσμικὰς ἐπιθυμίας)
Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;
Looking for (προσδεχόμενοι)
In Pastorals only here. Comp. Mark 15:43; Luke 2:25; Luke 12:36. In this sense not in Paul. Primarily, to receive to one's self, admit, accept. So Luke 15:2; Romans 16:2; Philippians 2:29. That which is accepted in faith, is awaited expectantly.
That blessed hope (τὴν μακαρίαν ἐλπίδα)
The phrase N.T.o. Μακάριος blessed, very often in the Gospels. See on Matthew 5:3. In Pastorals, with the exception of this passage, always of God. In Paul, only of men, and so usually in the Gospels. Ἑλπίδα hope, the object of hope. Why the hope is called blessed, appears from 2 Timothy 4:8; Philippians 3:20, etc. Comp. Jde 1:21, and 1 Peter 1:13.
And the glorious appearing (καὶ ἐπιφάνειαν τῆς δόξης)
Καὶ is explanatory, introducing the definition of the character of the thing hoped for. Looking for the object of hope, even the appearing, etc. Glorious appearing is a specimen of the vicious hendiadys by which the force of so many passages has been impaired or destroyed in translation. Rend. appearing of the glory.
Of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ (τοῦ μεγάλου θεοῦ καὶ σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Χριστοῦ Ἱησοῦ)
For Jesus Christ rend. Christ Jesus. Μέγας great with God, N.T.o , but often in lxx. According to A.V. two persons are indicated, God and Christ. Revelations with others rend. of our great God and Savior Christ Jesus, thus indicating one person, and asserting the deity of Christ. I adopt the latter, although the arguments and authorities in favor of the two renderings are very evenly balanced.
Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
Gave himself for us (ἔδωκεν ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν)
Might redeem (λυτρώσηται)
Only here, Luke 24:21; 1 Peter 1:18. See on 1 Timothy 2:6. Neither λύτρον ransom, λύτρωσις redemption, nor λυτρωτής redeemer occur in Paul. He has the figure of purchase (ἀγοράζεσθαι, ἐξαγοράζεσθαι), 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 7:23; Galatians 3:13; Galatians 4:5. Comp. Revelation 5:9; Revelation 14:3, Revelation 14:4; 2 Peter 2:1.
Only here in Pastorals. Lit. lawlessness. See on 1 John 3:4.
Might purify (καθαρίσῃ)
A peculiar people (λαὸν περιούσιον)
Λαός people only here in Pastorals. In Paul ten times, always in citations. Most frequently in Luke and Acts; often in Hebrews and Revelation. Περιούσιος N.T.o. A few times in lxx, always with λαός. See Exodus 19:5; Exodus 23:22; Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18. The phrase was originally applied to the people of Israel, but is transferred here to believers in the Messiah - Jews and Gentiles. Comp. 1 Peter 2:10. Περιούσιος is from the participle of περιεῖναι to be over and above: hence περιουσία abundance, plenty. Περιούσιος also means possessed over and above, that is, specially selected for one's own; exempt from ordinary laws of distribution. Hence correctly represented by peculiar, derived from peculium, a private purse, a special acquisition of a member of a family distinct from the property administered for the good of the whole family. Accordingly the sense is given in Ephesians 1:14, where believers are said to have been sealed εἰς ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως with a view to redemption of possession, or redemption which will give possession, thus equals acquisition. So 1 Peter 2:9, where Christians are styled λαὸς εἰς περιποίησιν a people for acquisition, to be acquired by God as his peculiar possession. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 5:9; 2 Thessalonians 2:14, and περιποιεῖσθαι to acquire, Acts 20:28. The phrase καθαρίζειν λαὸν to purify the people, in lxx, Nehemiah 12:30; Judith 16:18.
Lit. a zealot. Comp. Acts 21:20; Acts 22:3; 1 Peter 3:13. Only here in Pastorals. In Paul, 1 Corinthians 14:12; Galatians 1:14. For the word as a title, see on the Canaanite, Matthew 10:4, and see on Mark 3:18.
See on 1 Timothy 1:1.
N.T.o. Occasionally in Class. From περὶ beyond, φρονεῖν to be minded. To set one's self in thought beyond; hence; contemn, despise. Comp. 1 Timothy 4:12. The exhortation is connected with authority. Titus is to claim respect for his office and for himself as bearing it.
These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.