Titus 3:3
The apostle adds, as a reason for the duties first specified, that "we also," including himself with the Gentile Christians, were once in a similar condition to the heathen, and had received mercy. It is a dark picture of men in their natural state, proceeding from a description of the inward source to the outward facts of this evil life.

I. HUMAN NATURE DEPICTED AS TO ITS MORE INWARD CHARACTER. "For we ourselves" were once foolish.

1. It is foolish. As wisdom is the choice of proper means of attaining our ends, so folly must be the direct contrary.

(1) The fool despises instruction and wisdom, and hates knowledge (Proverbs 1:7, 22).

(2) He walks in the darkness of a false education (Ecclesiastes 2:14).

(3) He is self-sufficient and self-confident (Proverbs 14:8, 16).

(4) He is a self-deceiver (Proverbs 14:8).

(5) He makes a mock at sin (Proverbs 14:9).

2. It is disobedient. The word implies that the root of all true obedience is faith. Human nature is without faith, and is therefore disobedient.

(1) Disobedience forfeits God's favor (1 Samuel 13:14).

(2) Provokes his anger (Psalm 78:10, 40).

(3) Forfeits promised blessings (Joshua 5:6).

(4) Brings curse (Deuteronomy 11:28).

(5) There are many warnings against it (Jeremiah 12:17).

3. It is deceived. Because it is separated from Christ, who is the Light of the world. It is easily led astray by all sorts of delusion. It has no pole-star or compass to steer by, and is therefore in constant danger of shipwreck. It is deceived by itself as well as by the devil.


1. Its service was impure. "Serving divers lusts and pleasures." This was the character of heathen life in an island like Crete, where the propensities of human nature would have free scope. The pleasures of this life were of a sinful and debasing nature. Such a service was bondage (Romans 6:6, 16; Romans 16:18).

2. It implied a life of malice.

(1) The wicked speak with malice (3 John 1:10).

(2) Are filled with it (Romans 1:29).

(3) Visit the saints with it (Psalm 83:3).

(4) God requites it (Isaiah 10:14).

3. It implied a life of envy.

(1) Envy is a work of the flesh (Galatians 5:21).

(2) The wicked are full of it (Romans 1:29).

(3) It leads to every evil work (James 3:16).

(4) It is hurtful to its possessors (Job 5:2).

(5) It will be punished (Psalm 106:16, 17).

4. It implies hatefulness. "Hateful;" that is, possessing the qualities that excite hatred and dislike.

5. It implies a return of hate for hate. "Hating one another."

(1) It is characteristic of those without love to God (1 John 2:9, 11).

(2) It is a work of the flesh (Galatians 5:21).

(3) It stirs up strife (Proverbs 10:12).

(4) It embitters life (Proverbs 15:17).

(5) It will be punished (Psalm 34:21). - T.C.

We ourselves also were sometimes foolish
I. WHAT EVEN CHRISTIANS WERE. Their lives and characters were distinguished by —

1. Folly;

2. Disobedience;

3. Liability to deception;

4. Sensuality;

5. Passion;

6. Unloveliness;

7. Unbrotherliness.

II. WHAT CHRISTIANS BECOME. Their lives display —

1. Humility of spirit;

2. Gentleness in action;

3. Truthfulness in word.

(F. Wagstaff.)

This verse layeth down a weighty reason whereby our apostle would bow and bend the minds of Christian men to the practice of the former virtues, namely, of equity, lenity, long-suffering, and meekness towards all men, foes as well as friends, yea, the worst as well as the best. The reason is drawn frown the consideration of the present condition of converted Christians, compared with that estate they were in before their conversion and calling to the faith, to which purpose he is very large in describing.

1. Our estate of corruption (ver. 3).

2. Our estate after conversion (vers. 4-6), from both which the apostle thus concluded the same thing thus: First, the former; if we ourselves were in times past in the self-same condition, which other men are not called out of, then ought we to be meek and merciful even to those who are not yet converted. But we ourselves were in times past as they are; we lay in the same puddle of corruption, were hewn out of the same pit, and though we may think we were never so graceless, as we see some others, yet we cannot charge them so deeply for time present, but they may come over us with the same in times past, as this third verse will teach us, and therefore we ought to show all lenity and meekness to all men. Secondly, from our latter condition of conversion, thus our apostle frameth his reason. If God have been so bountiful a benefactor unto us, when we were so unworthy, as the former verse describeth, that His mere and alone mercy saved us; then must we in imitation of our heavenly Father do the like to our brethren. But God hath done thus (vers. 4, 5) so as from both we may well reason that a new condition requireth a new conversation; new men must have new manners; we being Christians may not carry ourselves so crookedly as in times past, nor so roughly towards those who now do the same things which then we did, considering our own selves.

(T. Taylor, D. D.)

1. The consideration of the common condition is a notable ground of meekness and moderation towards those who are yet uncalled to the faith. For —(1) Whereas pride maketh the heart to swell against the brother, and is a root whence these bitter fruits arise, this consideration pulleth those peacock feathers, and humbleth the heart, so as when it can find no other reason of forbearance, here it never wanteth a most effectual one.

2. This consideration not only subdueth that violent affection of pride, but worketh the heart to such affections as not only beseem ourselves but befit the offender, and these are two —

(1)For time present pity and compassion.

(2)Hope for time to come.

3. Whosoever are called unto the faith have experience of a double estate in themselves, one in time past, another for the present, the one of nature, the other of grace. Our apostle affirmeth it of all believers, of which there is none but he had his once, his time past, in regard of which he may now be said to be changed into another man (Romans 7:5, 6). The time was when the Romans were in the flesh, when sinful motions had force in them unto death; and there was an aftertime when they were delivered from the law, and served God not in the oldness of the letter, but in the newness of spirit (Ephesians 2:3). Among whom the Gentiles we believers had our conversation in time past. "Wherein ye walked also once, but now," etc. (1 Corinthians 6:11). "And such were some of you, but ye are washed." And good reason there is that he that is now beloved should see that once he was not beloved, and that he who now is in the state of grace should see that he was once in the state of wrath as well as others, which will cause him to love much; and indeed the elect could not be elect, nor justified, nor washed, if they were always the children of God, and were it not for this once, and time past, wherein there was no difference between them and the reprobate, but only in God's counsel and possibility of calling. I add, further, that the converted may and must have experience of this change, for the conversion of a sinner is a miracle above all natural wonders; and therefore, except in some Jeremiah, John Baptist, and some few sanctified from the womb, is no such insensible thing as cannot be perceived. It is no such natural change as is effected by insensible degrees, as when he that was a child is now become a man; but a supernatural change by the Spirit of grace, such as when a man is born into the world, or when a blind man is restored to his sight, or rather a dead man unto life, which are things of much note and manifest alteration, and that of the whole man. Again, faith it is which as an internal instrument purgeth the Augean Stable, and purifieth the foul cage of the heart. Now this we may know, and must examine whether we be in the faith or no; know ye not that Christ is in you, unless ye be reprobates. "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?" (1 Corinthians 3:16). "Know ye that ye are dead to sin, but are alive to God in Jesus Christ our Lord" (Romans 6:11). Labour to find this change in thyself and examine whether thou canst put difference between time past and time present, for otherwise I see not but thou must set thyself down without comfort, as one that hath no sound proof of thy conversion. Hence may many a one learn what to think of himself. Some profess they love God with all their hearts and have ever so done since they can remember; they always believed in Christ and never doubted but they were ever dear unto God. But all this is nothing but a deceitful skinning over the sores of their souls with peace, peace, whereas the case that was ever so good was never good at all; no, if thou canst not remember the time past, when thy state was worse than nought, I can never be persuaded that it is good for the present.Every Christian learn hence —

1. If we see a change in ourselves or others to bless God that hath made this separation (Romans 6:17). God be thanked that ye were such, but now ye obey the form, and blessed be God for this unspeakable gift.

2. Not to deem of men as they were once in time past, when once this change is come, the Lord esteemeth of men according to the present grace received, and never casteth them in the teeth with that they were in time past; and why should we upbraid men with sins or infirmities past, which the Lord hath covered? Paul accounted not James, John, Peter, fishermen, as they had been in times past, but highly esteemed of them as apostles of Christ, being called thereunto.

(T. Taylor, D. D.)

1. The main property of fools and silly bodies is that they know not the end of their lives, why God made them and put them into this world; even to ask many men why God did inspire the breath of life on their faces, how few would give this direct answer, that by glorifying God in my calling I might be led to a better life hereafter. Ask many a man concerning heaven, and earth, and sea, and other sensible things, and they will give some sensible answers, as that the earth was made for man and beast to live upon; the sea for fish and navigation; the air for man and beast to breathe in; the sun, moon, and stars for light, heat, and comfort; the beasts, fishes, fowls, etc., for man; but why thyself? Fewest would say for God; but if they speak true, some for themselves, some for their family, some for their pleasures, some for wealth, or some baser end, to which such a noble creature as man is should be destinated.

2. As fools live for the present time if they can get meat, drink, clothes, and necessaries for the present, they forecast nothing to come; even so ungodly men, if they can get wealth, and lay up things present for many years to come, they dream of no other heaven, they forecast no day of death, nor judgment; but oh, fool, what if thy soul be taken away this night? This was that which that fool thought not of; and as of their own, so they judge of all other men's felicity by things present, into which folly David himself was sliding, when he confesseth himself as ignorant as a beast in this point, until he went into the sanctuary.

3. Fools are indocible and incorrigible; so the natural man put him to school, he learneth nothing by the book of the creatures, nor of the Creator in the Scriptures. Let God the great schoolmaster whip him, and bray him in the mortar of His judgments. He is a fool still, be leaveth not his old wonts.

4. Fools are so wise in their own conceits as they will abide no counsel; the natural man is wiser in his own eyes than seven men that can give a reason.

(T. Taylor, D. D.)

The whole sentence is in form a contrast. It reminds the Cretans of what they had been in their unconverted conidition. Against that it sets their present position as Christians. It grandly magnifies the Divine grace which had made them to differ. Out of this little biographical sketch there sprang two arguments for a meek behaviour. In the first place, these heathen neighbours, whose abusive attitude is so irritating, are not at all different from what you used to be. Recall what you were before God's grace changed you: precisely such as they are today. You did not then see your own foulness — not then, before the light came; neither do they see theirs now. Yet contemplate, the hateful picture! What is pagan life?

1. So dark on religious matters as to possess no true acquaintance with God nor any just apprehension of spiritual truth at all.

2. As a result in part of this ignorance, disobedient in practice to all the requirements of Divine law.

3. Deluded indeed and misled to false conceptions of duty and false superstitions in worship.

4. Worse than that, enslaved to the desire for enjoyment, given over to indulgence in what seems most pleasant, no matter how immoral.

5. Socially leading a life too selfish to be either just or generous to others, cherishing rancour against one another for imagined slights and jealousy on account of superior fortune. Is this a just picture of the natural life as it mirrors itself in the enlightened Christian conscience? Sum it up in a single word: Are not such men repulsive as well as repellant — hateful as well as hating? Yet such were you. By the recollection of your former state, remembering the old darkness out of which you indeed have been rescued but not they, bear with them tenderly, think of them kindly! To this argument, a second joins itself: Out of that universal degradation of unregenerate nature, how is it that you have been rescued? By an effort of your own, or by another's favour? Nay; not through any righteous actions or meritorious struggles to grow better, as you very well know; but through the mere mercy and cleansing and renewing power of "God our Saviour"; by a salvation which came to you unsought, found you helpless, surprised you with its benefits, and by its own virtue made new men of you in that day when you turned from your idols to become through Jesus Christ the heirs of life eternal! Saved thus by the sheer philanthropy of Heaven, have you none for your unsaved brothers? Changed by Divine mercy from a state like theirs, where is your mercy to them? They are as you were: treat them, then, as God treated you! How if He had been as resentful against us, as quick to take offence and ready to strike? Ah, how ill it becomes a Christian to speak evil of others, to brawl, to give back word for word and blow for blow! By the kindness your Saviour has returned for your wrong, show to your still wrongful fellows what is that love of God to man which has been manifested unto you; that they too may be won to taste that God is good!

(J. O. Dykes, D. D.)

Many years ago the people of Paris used to throw out the offal of fish and other garbage into the streets to be carted away as useless, but a clever man found out a way to extract from this filth a sweet scent, so pleasant and good that the Queen on her throne has it in her boudoir. This is an example of what men can do with vile materials; but God can do greater and mightier things with man than this, He can and will take the vilest person out of the mire and slime of sin's foul gutter, and make him glorious like His own Son by the transforming power of the Holy Spirit.

(J. Lawson.)

This second degree of corruption of mind showeth that we are not only ignorant but froward in the things of God, and such as will not be persuaded, as the word in the original sounded; and this is nothing else but a perverse disposition which fighteth against the truth. Which a little better to understand, we must know that before our fall the mind of man had two faculties about the truth of God.

1. The knowledge of it so far as was meet.

2. An assent approving that knowledge.Instead of which are succeeded two contrary corruptions since the fall.

1. Darkness instead of that light of knowledge.

2. Frowardness or reasoning against it.For example: when the understanding of man, unconverted, conceiveth something of that we deliver out of the Word, whereas it should assent unto the law that it is good, and the gospel that it is the arm of God unto salvation, the wisdom of the flesh on the contrary, it becometh enmity to all this; it can find evasions to shift off the curse; it can covenant with hell and death. And for the gospel, it is to one foolishness, to another offence. Paul's preaching shall be counted madness, or malice, or something else which shall be reason and warrant enough to contemn it.

(T. Taylor, D. D.)

I. First, what a fearful deceit is that of many who strengthen themselves in their sins, sometimes PUTTING OFF ALL THE FEAR OF GOD'S JUSTICE, AND GROWING INTO CONTEMPT OF HIS JUDGMENTS; sometimes absolving themselves from the guilt and curse of sin in hope of impunity, as though the Lord were become an idle essence, who hath put off the power of judging the world and revenging the wickedness of it. Zephaniah noted in his time such a knot of ungodly men that were frozen in their dregs; but how came they to this settledness in sin? "They said in their hearts, Tush! the Lord will do neither good nor evil." And did this sin die with that age?

II. A second and as fearful deceit as the former is that proud CONCEIT OF A KIND OF INBRED AND INHERENT RIGHTEOUSNESS of many reputed Christians, but indeed of such as wanting Christ's righteousness, seek to sew their own fig leaves together. The Pharisees in their time thanked God that they were not as other men; they were whole and needed no physician. The Laodiceans took themselves to be rich and increased and stood in need of nothing, but were deceived, and saw not themselves in a true glass, which would have showed their blindness and nakedness and poverty. So how many civil, just dealing, and harmless men everywhere are there at this day who overthrow themselves with this deceit, which ariseth sometimes by measuring themselves with themselves, as the proud preachers of Corinth seemed somewhat comparing themselves with themselves, and otherwhiles comparing themselves with others, whom they take greater sinners than themselves as the Pharisees did; but especially through ignorance, or a dead knowledge of the righteousness of the law, they see not what strict righteousness God requireth, not their own corruption boiling within them, and so neglect all the sense of their secret lusts rising up against the love of God or man and that incessantly in them?

III. A third sort of men as far deceived as the former are SECURE PERSONS, who being baptized into the name of Christ as yet never came unto Him, but plod on in all dirty and sinful ways with many pretences underpropplng themselves, but never examining duly whether they be right or no.

1. Superstitious persons who take up a voluntary religion which hath some show of wisdom and humbleness of mind; worship God they think they do, but it is uncommanded; devout they are, but resist the truth as those devout women which resisteth Paul.

2. General or Catholic Protestants of all, any, or no religion, these content themselves with the Jews to say, "the temple, the temple, the covenant, Abraham's seed," etc., so these find a religion established, and they love it because it is crowned and bringeth in abundance of property with it.

3. A rabble of idle Protestants whose carnal hearts turn the grace of God into wantonness.

4. The fourth sort may well carry the title of crafty Christians, as also of free will Protestants, who for the present walk in a secure path and will not yet be acquainted with repentance for their sin they think.

5. The fifth sort of secure persons may be called sensible Protestants, who by outward things judge themselves high in God's books; and many, both rich and poor, tread in this path. Thus David observed of wicked rich men; their houses were peaceable without fear, and because they are not in affliction like other men, pride compasseth them as a chain; they seek not after God, nor sound and settled peace in Him, but little know they the end of that fat pasture. He learned at the sanctuary that they were lifted up above other, as felons on the ladder, to come down with a greater mischief and breakneck. But more marvellous it is that corrections and afflictions should become a pillow for security in many, which are God's spurs in the flank of the godly to prick them up, and rouse them from their drowsiness; and yet many determine hence, and conclude without further ground, the Lord's love towards them, because of long and durable afflictions, of which they could never come to make good use, nor take any profit by them, whom God loveth, say they, He chasteneth. And we are judged of the Lord, that we should not be condemned of the world, and when they are exceeding crossed in the world, and indeed cursed in their counsel and attempts, they thank God they have their punishment here in this life and so secure themselves from all future pains. But this is but a guile and stratagem of Satan to cast his poison into the Lord's cup, and bane and destroy men with that which might be a special mean of their good, even a special provocation to make them seek reconciliation with God in Jesus Christ.

IV. The fourth and last sort of men who are deceived and wander out of the good way are SOME THAT SEEM TO THEMSELVES AND OTHERS TO BE VERY GOOD CHRISTIANS, AT LEAST NONE OF THE WORST, and yet many of them little better than some of the former. And these are of two sorts; some are deceived in regard of their sins, others in regard of their graces or virtues.

1. Of the former sort. There be some who, because they are not carried to such sins as they see others, they conclude presently that they are in the right way to heaven, whereas there may be a work of the Word and Spirit forcible against many sins, where there is no saving grace in the soul.

2. The latter sort are they that deceive themselves in turning their eyes from their sins to some virtues or graces which they find in their souls. Hence have we men that can be diligent in hearing the Word, and that gladly with Herod, and think that enough to dispense with their holding of their Herodias, some sweet sin or other. Others can rejoice and be affected as we have known soft-hearted Protestants, that could melt at sermons into tears with great affection, and yet have made little conscience of their ways, but not mortifying the deeds of the flesh, have yielded to their lusts the reins in all liberty. Others can receive the Word, talk of it, yield a seemly obedience unto it; any man would say they were surely good Christians, yet as bad ground they give it not depth enough; they give it the understanding and some affection, but the will and the whole joy is not carried unto it. If they talk of it, it is but as such as only have tasted it with their tongues, as cooks do their services, but they have not filled their belly with it, as they for whom it is prepared. Their sightly obedience is like Herod's, who did many things because John was a good man. In a word, they can be reverent and liberal to ministers, kind to professors, forward in good motions, can lend their hands or purses to help the godly out of trouble, and yet in all these commendable duties are like a deceitful bow, which being east and crooked, let the eye aim never so right at the mark, it casteth it quite besides all the way; even all these, proceeding from deep hypocrisy, and done not purely, but sinister respects furthering them, deceive the soul and keep it far from the happiness of it.

(T. Taylor, D. D.)

Serving divers lusts and pleasures
Sins are called lusts because they be indeed so many inordinate desires against the commandment. And pleasures, because of the imagination of them that commit sin, being carried away with the present pleasure and sweetness of them. And diverse pleasures —

1. Because they are many in themselves, and though every man yield not service to every one, yet some serve this, and some that, and every wicked man some. Samson will be slave to his Delilah, in the lust of the flesh and uncleanness; Nabal to his wealth, in the lust of the eye; Herod to his vainglory, in the lust of pride of life.

2. Because they diversely carry men, even as a man in the sea is carried backward and forward and hurried with divers waves, for there is no stability nor settledness but in the fear of God. The wicked are like the raging sea, and there is no peace to them, saith the Lord; but as slaves having served one lust, they must presently be at the call and command of another, and if it command they must obey, although it call to the clean contrary course.

(T. Taylor, D. D.)

What slavery is like the slavery of sin? In every other case there is hope; there are lulls, at least, and intervals of anguish; there are alleviations, though perhaps they may be few and rare; there is patience, there is prayer; there may be the comfort of the cherished Spirit of God in the inner heart; there is death, in which the consummation of earthly tyranny works its own cure, and the slave is free forever; but in the slavery of sin there is no hope, no lull, no check, no flight, no patience, no prayer, no inward peace of a religious spirit counterbalancing the outward misery of the fettered limbs; and death, the limit of the one slavery, is but the terrible "beginning of the end" of the other; when sin, which has been allowed to rule in the heart and members during life, declares itself visibly and unmistakably to be the very tyrant of souls himself, the Prince of Darkness, to whose sway his slave is consigned to all eternity.

(Bp. Moberly.)

I. First, TO DISTINGUISH THE WORDS. The first of them, malice, is an evil affection of the heart, which properly desireth the hurt of our neighbour and rejoiceth in his fall. Envy is a contrary affection, but as wicked, for it grieveth at the neighbour's good, and fretteth itself at his prosperous and fortunate success in anything. Hateful may to good purpose be taken either actively, as it is read, namely for such as are in such extremity of wickedness, as they in every way are abominable creatures in themselves; or else passively, and so may be read hated, that is, justly execrable and odious unto others, both God and men. And hating one another, as full of poison and venomous hatred towards others as they could be unto us, requiting like for like, all which, although they show a most godless and comfortless condition, yet we lived in this graceless course, that is, passed our days, or at least a great part of them in time past, before we came to know the grace of God.

II. Now this being the estate of every natural man, that his whole conversation is monstrously depraved, so as he spendeth his days and consumeth his time in malice, envy, hatred, and such hateful courses, IT MAY LET MANY A MAN SEE HOW LITTLE THEY ARE ESCAPED FROM THE FILTHINESS OF NATURE. For —

1. How do the lives of most men show that the spirit which lusteth after envy ruleth them? and how doth that bitter root of malice and hatred shoot forth buds and blossoms at all seasons?(1) In affection, when as men grieve at the good and greatness of another, and cannot look upon the prosperity of a man whom they wish not so well unto, but with an evil eye, and the more they look upon it, the sorer still groweth their eye, accounting themselves after a sort wronged by him, if they cannot attain to his estate.(2) In men's speeches, how doth Satan tip many men's tongues and set them on fire with all manner of malicious and murdering speeches? What is more common speech than detraction and impairing from the just praise of men?(3) In the actions of life, what a cloud of frivolous suits, and yet fiery enough, witness the malice and envy of men's hearts. If a man's beast look but over another man's hedge, and so make but offer of a trespass, or any other such trivial colour is sufficient to fire the gunpowder within, and to carry the controversy with such violence, as one must yield or both be blown up. But the most fearful and wretched work of this inbred corruption is most apparent in the pursuit of good men, because they are good; for who, be he never so good, can stand before envy, which feedeth even upon virtue and goodness itself?

2. This must teach us that profess ourselves to be the Lord's, So abhor all the sins of this suit, and to banish such filthy fruits of the flesh, which God giveth them up unto who are of a reprobate mind; and have nothing to do with such wicked inmates, which are ever plotting to set the whole tenement on fire, and which bring rottenness into their own bones and bowels. As well said a godly man of Cain, he had half killed and consumed himself with malice before he killed his brother. And not to urge the multitude of reasons which to this purpose offer themselves, I will only name those two which are couched in the verse.(1) Because that we profess that we were such in times past, but now are begotten unto God, which were it not a forcible reason, the apostle would not so often beat upon it (Colossians 3:8; 1 Corinthians 5:8; James 1:18).(2) These hateful sins make us justly odious —(a) To God (Proverbs 14:32). The wicked is cast away for his malice both root and fruit.(b) To man, in that they wage battle against Christian love, which is the preservative of all society.

3. Lastly, let every one learn timely to take in hand this crooked nature before he be accustomed to evil; for else as hardly as a blackamoor changeth his skin shalt thou become changed when wicked nature and worse custom have both barred thy repentance and bound thy sins faster upon thee. And because much of this folly is bound up in the hearts of children and servants, let masters and fathers seek seasonably to drive it out; fathers especially, because they helped their children into it, must by Christian instruction, godly example, and the rod of correction, labour to help them out, and thus do their best to make their children a part of amends. Zuinglius calleth this corruption the disease of nature. And herein it fitly resembleth the diseases of the body, the which the longer they continue the more incurable they are; and if they be let go too long they bring certain death; and therefore let parents and masters, many of whom are careful enough to prevent and seek out for help against the diseases which threaten the bodily death of their children and servants, take up some care to remove that everlasting death which this evil threateneth, and will certainly bring if in due season it be not repressed. Teach thy child and train him in the Scriptures from a child; teach thy servant the trade of Christianity and godliness, for thou art no less bound to deliver him the principles of this calling, as the particular to which he is bound. Use good means to get them the light of knowledge, opposed against this blindness of mind; work upon their wills to break them from the follies and vanities of youth, opposed to this rebellion of will; bring them at least to outward conformity in their conversation, opposed to this general depravation of manners. These things they will not forget in their age, or if they do, the peril is their own; thou hast done thy duty. One thing remember: thy servants, thy children are all poisoned, and have need of some present antidote.

(T. Taylor, D. D.)

Malice is the devil's picture. Lust makes men brutish, and malice makes them devilish. Malice is mental murder; you may kill a man and never touch him. "Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer."

(T. Watson.)

A bee, in inflicting a sting, it is said, leaves it barbed weapon in the wound, and, being thus mutilated, inevitably dies. The bee stings itself to death in trying to sting some one else. Your stinging may hurt others and kill yourself.

Malice, in Latin, malitia, from malus, bad, signifies the very essence of badness lying in the heart. Rancour is only continued hatred; the former requires no external cause to provoke it, it is inherent in the mind; the latter must be caused by some personal offence. Malice is properly the love of evil for evil's sake, and is, therefore, confined to no number or quality of objects, and limited to no circumstances; rancour, as it depends upon external objects for its existence, so it is confined to such objects only as are liable to cause displeasure or anger. Malice will impel a man to do mischief to those who have not injured him; rancour can subsist only between those who have had sufficient connection to be at variance.

(G. Crabb.)

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