1 Kings 7:45
And the pots, and the shovels, and the basins: and all these vessels, which Hiram made to king Solomon for the house of the LORD, were of bright brass.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
1 Kings 7:45-47. And the pots — Or caldrons rather. These were vessels in which they boiled those sacrifices, or parts of sacrifices, which were divided between the priests and the people that offered them; that is, the peace-offerings, that they might eat them before the Lord. In the clay- ground — Hebrew, In the thickness of the ground. That is, in earth that was stiff and glutinous, and therefore more fit for making moulds of all kinds. And in a plain country such moulds were more easily fixed than on the sides of hills, or steep places. Solomon left all the vessels unweighed — Because the weighing of them would have been troublesome, and to no purpose. Neither was the weight of the brass found out — Hebrew, נחקר, nechkar, investigated, or inquired into. Much less was an exact account taken of it.7:13-47 The two brazen pillars in the porch of the temple, some think, were to teach those that came to worship, to depend upon God only, for strength and establishment in all their religious exercises. Jachin, God will fix this roving mind. It is good that the heart be established with grace. Boaz, In him is our strength, who works in us both to will and to do. Spiritual strength and stability are found at the door of God's temple, where we must wait for the gifts of grace, in use of the means of grace. Spiritual priests and spiritual sacrifices must be washed in the laver of Christ's blood, and of regeneration. We must wash often, for we daily contract pollution. There are full means provided for our cleansing; so that if we have our lot for ever among the unclean it will be our own fault. Let us bless God for the fountain opened by the sacrifice of Christ for sin and for uncleanness.Lavers - Rather, according to the true reading, "pots." (Compare 1 Kings 7:45; 2 Chronicles 4:16.) The "pots" were the caldrons in which it was usual to boil the peace-offerings. See 1 Samuel 2:13-14, 40-45. And Hiram made the lavers, and the shovels, and the basins—These verses contain a general enumeration of Hiram's works, as well as those already mentioned as other minor things. The Tyrian artists are frequently mentioned by ancient authors as skilful artificers in fashioning and embossing metal cups and bowls; and we need not wonder, therefore, to find them employed by Solomon in making the golden and brazen utensils for his temple and palaces. The pots, to seethe those parts of the sacrifices which the priests or officers were to eat. To these flesh-hooks are added, 2 Chronicles 4:16. And Hiram made the lavers, and the shovels, and the basins,.... The lavers are not the ten before mentioned, of the make of which an account is before given; but these, according to Jarchi and Ben Gersom, are the same with the pots, 1 Kings 7:45 and so they are called in 2 Chronicles 4:11 the use of which, as they say, was to put the ashes of the altar into; as the "shovels", next mentioned, were a sort of besoms to sweep them off, and the "basins" were to receive the blood of the sacrifices, and sprinkle it; no mention is here made of the altar of brass he made, but is in 2 Chronicles 4:11, nor of the fleshhooks to take the flesh out of the pots, as in 2 Chronicles 4:16,

so Hiram made an end of doing all the work that he made King Solomon for the house of the Lord; what he undertook, and was employed in, he finished, which were all works of brass; of which a recapitulation is made in the following verses to the end of the forty fifth, where they are said to be made of "bright brass", free of all dross and rust; "good", as the Targum, even the best brass they were made of; the brass David took from Hadarezer, 1 Chronicles 18:8 which Josephus (g) too much magnifies, when he says it was better than gold.

(g) Antiqu. l. 7. c. 5. sect. 3.

And the pots, and the shovels, and the basons: and all these vessels, which {u} Hiram made to king Solomon for the house of the LORD, were of bright brass.

(u) By this name also Hiram the king of Tyrus was called.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
45. and all these vessels] Better, at the close of the list, ‘even all these.’ The Heb. text has consonants which would be rendered ‘the vessels of the Tent’ i.e. the tabernacle. But this is corrected by a marginal reading to ‘these vessels,’ which is most certainly the true text. The variation comes about by the transposition of two consonants אהל for אלה.

made to king Solomon] In modern English we should say ‘for,’ in spite of the following ‘for’ coming so close. But the R.V. has changed the phrase ‘for the house of the Lord’ both here and in 1 Kings 7:40 into in the house of the Lord. There is no preposition at all in the Hebrew, but the noun appears to be the accusative of place. So that the change of the R.V. is not without justification. The same construction is translated ‘in the house of the Lord’ 2 Kings 11:3; 2 Kings 11:15, and elsewhere.

bright brass] The R.V. gives furnished brass. The original word is a participle and not an adjective.Verse 45. - And the pots [see on ver. 40], and the shovels, and the basons, and all these vessels [according to the Keri] which Hiram made [There is no mention of the altar, as in 2 Chronicles 4:1, possibly because it was not made by Hiram (Bahr)] to [rather, for] king Solomon for [Heb. omits] the house of the Lord, were of bright brass. [Marg. made bright, i.e., polished after casting.] And he put the stands five on the right side of the house and five on the left; and the (brazen) sea he put upon the right side eastwards, opposite to the south. The right side is the south side, and the left the north side. Consequently the stands were not placed on the right and left, i.e., on each side of the altar of burnt-offering, but on each side of the house, i.e., of the temple-hall; while the brazen sea stood farther forward between the hall and the altar, only more towards the south, i.e., to the south-east of the hall and the south-west of the altar of burnt-offering. The basins upon the stands were for washing (according to 2 Chronicles 4:6), namely, "the work of the burnt-offering," that is to say, for cleansing the flesh and fat, which were to be consumed upon the altar of burnt-offering. By means of the stands on wheels they could not only easily bring the water required near to the priests who were engaged in preparing the sacrifices, but could also let down the dirty water into the chest of the stand by means of a special contrivance introduced for the purpose, and afterwards take it away. As the introduction of carriages for the basins arose from the necessities of the altar-service, so the preparation of ten such stands, and the size of the basins, was occasioned by the greater extension of the sacrificial worship, in which it often happened that a considerable number of sacrifices had to be made ready for the altar at the same time. The artistic work of these stands and their decoration with figures were intended to show that these vessels were set apart for the service of the sanctuary. The emblems are to some extent the same as those on the walls of the sanctuary, viz., cherubim, palms, and flowers, which had therefore naturally the same meaning here as they had there; the only difference being that they were executed there in gold, whereas here they were in brass, to correspond to the character of the court. Moreover, there were also figures of lions and oxen, pointing no doubt to the royal and priestly characters, which were combined, according to Exodus 19:6, in the nation worshipping the Lord in this place.
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