2 Samuel 8:12
Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(12) Of Syria.1Chronicles 18:11 reads Edom. The two names differing in the original only by one very similar letter (the d and r, which are so often confused), it might be supposed that one was an error for the other, were it not that both were actually conquered and the spoils of both dedicated by David, Syria is spoken of here because Edom has not yet been mentioned, and the account of its conquest is given afterwards (2Samuel 8:14; 1Kings 11:15-17); while Edom is given in Chron. because the booty from Syria had just before been spoken of particularly. It may be, however, that both names were originally in both places.

Amalek.—This is the only allusion to a war with Amalek after David came to the throne. They had been “utterly destroyed” by Saul (1 Samuel 15); but they were a nation of many tribes, and Saul’s victory can relate to only one branch, since David afterwards inflicted a severe blow upon them (1 Samuel 30), and there is no reason why still other branches of the nation may not have proved troublesome, and been defeated by him at other times.

8:9-14 All the precious things David was master of, were dedicated things; they were designed for building the temple. The idols of gold David destroyed, 2Sa 5:21, but the vessels of gold he dedicated. Thus, in the conquest of a soul by the grace of the Son of David, what stands in opposition to God must be destroyed, every lust must be mortified and crucified, but what may glorify him must be dedicated; thus the property of it is altered. God employs his servants in various ways; some, as David, in spiritual battles; others, as Solomon, in spiritual buildings; and one prepares work for the other, that God may have the glory of all.Syria - Rather, as in 1 Chronicles 18:11, Edom, which is manifestly the right reading, both because Edom, Moab, and Ammon are so frequently joined together, and because David's Syrian spoil is expressly mentioned at the end of the verse. (The Hebrew letters for Aram (Syria) and Edom are very similar.) 11. Which also king David did dedicate unto the Lord—Eastern princes have always been accustomed to hoard up vast quantities of gold. This is the first instance of a practice uniformly followed by David of reserving, after defraying expenses and bestowing suitable rewards upon his soldiers, the remainder of the spoil taken in war, to accumulate for the grand project of his life—the erection of a national temple at Jerusalem. No text from Poole on this verse. Of Syria,.... Of Syria of Damascus, as distinct from Syriazobah, Hadadezer was king of, after mentioned; this is omitted in 1 Chronicles 18:11,

and of Moab: who brought him gifts and presents, and were tributaries to him, 2 Samuel 8:2,

and of the children of Ammon; who very probably joined the Moabites, and were conquered and spoiled at the same time:

and of the Philistines; when Methegammah was taken from them, 2 Samuel 8:1,

and of Amalek; for though we have no account of any war of his with that people, since he was king, yet he doubtless had, and had been victorious and spoiled them; see Psalm 83:7,

and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah; see 2 Samuel 8:3. These conquests of David, are confirmed by the testimony of Eupolemus, an Heathen writer, who says that he overcame the Syrians by Euphrates, and the Assyrians in Galadene (or Gilead), and the Phoenicians; that he fought against the Idumeans (or Edomites), the Ammonites, Moabites, Ituraeans, Nabathaeans, and Nabdaeans; also against Syron king of Tyre and Phoenicia; all of whom he obliged to pay tribute to the Jews (a).

(a) Apud Euseb. Praepar. Evangel. l. 9. c. 30. p. 447.

Of Syria, and of Moab, and of the children of Ammon, and of the Philistines, and of Amalek, and of the spoil of Hadadezer, son of Rehob, king of Zobah.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
12. of Syria] Chr. and the Sept. agree in reading Edom instead of Aram (Syria). The two names are easily confused (cp. note on 2 Samuel 8:3), and it is not easy to decide between them. The order, and the connexion with Moab and Ammon, are in favour of Edom: on the other hand Edom has not yet been mentioned, and Syria of Damascus was distinct from Zobah, and might very well be specified in addition to it (2 Samuel 8:5).

Amalek] The only allusion to an Amalekite war, unless the spoil taken in the victory of 1 Samuel 30:16 ff. is meant.

Chr. omits the rest of the verse.Verse 12. - Of Syria; Hebrew, Aram. The reading in 1 Chronicles 18:11 is Edom, which differs from Aram in only one letter. The two words are constantly confused in manuscripts, and "Edom" is probably right here, first, because it is coupled with Moab and Ammon, which were its neighbours; but chiefly because the spoil of Hadarezer, mentioned at the end of the verse, is the spoil of Aram. It would not be enumerated twice. After destroying the main force of Hadadezer, David turned against his ally, against Aram-Damascus, i.e., the Aramaeans, whose capital was Damascus. Dammesek (for which we have Darmesek in the Chronicles according to its Aramaean form), Damascus, a very ancient and still a very important city of Syria, standing upon the Chrysorrhoas (Pharpar), which flows through the centre of it. It is situated in the midst of paradisaical scenery, on the eastern side of the Antilibanus, on the road which unites Western Asia with the interior. David smote 22,000 Syrians of Damascus, placed garrisons in the kingdom, and made it subject and tributary. נציבים are not governors of officers, but military posts, garrisons, as in 1 Samuel 10:5; 1 Samuel 13:3.
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