Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers
(1) And in the seventh month . . . —This chapter contains an account of the days which were to be observed as religious ordinances in the seventh or Sabbatical month—a month which contained more of those days than any other month in the year.
It is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you.—Literally, of loud or joyful clang. The silver trumpets were blown at every new moon (Numbers 10:10), but the first day of the seventh month was emphatically the day for blowing of trumpets—“a memorial of blowing of trumpets,” which, according to Jewish writers, was continued from sun-rising to sun-setting. (See Leviticus 23:24, and Note.) The word “trumpets” is not expressed either in Leviticus 23:24, or in this place; and in Psalm 81:3, which is used at the Feast of Trumpets in the modern Jewish services, the word used is shophan—a word which is interchanged with keren (the cornet, or ram’s horn)—not hazozerah, the straight silver trumpet mentioned in Numbers 10:2. The word teruah, which is here rendered “blowing the trumpets,” is coupled with shophar in Leviticus 25:9—“the trumpet of loud clang or joyful sound.” The details of the fire offering prescribed in Leviticus 23:25 are here given.
And in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work: it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you.
Beside the burnt offering of the month, and his meat offering, and the daily burnt offering, and his meat offering, and their drink offerings, according unto their manner, for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the LORD.(6) Beside the burnt offering of the month.—Better, of the new moon. (See Numbers 28:11, where the burnt offering of the beginning of the month is described.)
And ye shall have on the tenth day of this seventh month an holy convocation; and ye shall afflict your souls: ye shall not do any work therein:(7) The tenth day of this seventh month . . . —The law respecting the observance of the great Day of Atonement is contained in Leviticus 16 and Leviticus 23:26-32. The sacrifices prescribed in Numbers 29:8-11, which are the same as those prescribed for the first day of the seventh month, were to be offered in addition to the sin offerings of atonement prescribed in Leviticus 16 and to the daily burnt offerings. (See Notes on Leviticus 16; Leviticus 23:26-32.)
And ye shall afflict your souls.—See Leviticus 16:29. This affliction or humiliation appears to have included in it fasting (comp. Acts 27:9), although the word which denotes fasting is not employed, nor is there any express injunction respecting fasting in the Pentateuch.
And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have an holy convocation; ye shall do no servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the LORD seven days:(12) And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month . . . —See Leviticus 23:33-36; Leviticus 23:39-43. A larger number of burnt offerings was appointed for this feast than for any other festival. Seventy oxen in all were to be offered on the seven days of the feast, the number being diminished by one daily—viz., thirteen on the first day, twelve on the second, eleven on the third, and in like manner until the seventh day, on which seven oxen, the perfect number, were to be offered. In addition to the oxen, two rams and fourteen lambs were to be offered daily as burnt offerings, and a he-goat as a sin offering, in addition to the daily burnt offering. The appointed meal offerings and drink offerings were to be offered with all the burnt offerings. The large number of the sacrifices offered at this time may be accounted for from the consideration that at this feast the people not only expressed their gratitude for the Divine presence and protection, but also for the rich fruits of the harvest which had been recently ingathered.
On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly: ye shall do no servile work therein:(35) On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly.—Or, closing feast day. The word azereth, which is here and in the parallel passage in Leviticus 23:36 (comp. Nehemiah 8:18; 2Chronicles 7:9) rendered “solemn assembly,” is used in Deuteronomy 16:8 of the seventh or closing day of the Feast of the Passover. It is used in Jeremiah 9:2 and Amos 5:2 in a more general manner. In the former of these passages it is used of an assembly or confederacy of false dealers, and in the latter it appears to include solemn festivals generally, without limitation to the last day of their duration. The primary notion appears to be that of restraint—i.e., from the performance of servile work. The sacrifices of the eighth day were the same as those which were appointed for the first day of the seventh month, i.e., the Feast of Trumpets, and also for the tenth day, or Day of Atonement. (See Leviticus 23:36, and Note.)
These things ye shall do unto the LORD in your set feasts, beside your vows, and your freewill offerings, for your burnt offerings, and for your meat offerings, and for your drink offerings, and for your peace offerings.(39) These things ye shall do unto the Lord in your set feasts.—Better, These sacrifices shall ye offer unto the Lord at your set seasons.
For your burnt offerings . . . —The sacrifices prescribed in this chapter were appointed to be offered independently of all the burnt offerings, meal offerings, drink offerings, and peace offerings, which were made in performance of special vows, or as freewill offerings. (See Leviticus 22:18-21; Numbers 15:1-13.)
And Moses told the children of Israel according to all that the LORD commanded Moses.(40) And Moses told the children of Israel . . . —In the Hebrew Bible this verse forms the beginning of the 30th chapter.