Of the sons of Shechaniah, of the sons of Pharosh; Zechariah: and with him were reckoned by genealogy of the males an hundred and fifty.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Ezra 8:3. By genealogy of the males — Though the males only be expressed, yet doubtless they carried the women along with them, as they did the little ones, Ezra 8:21.
Ezra 8:2. ... of the sons of David, Hattush of the sons of Shechaniah.
Ezra 8:3. Of the sons of Pharosh, Zechariah ....
Hattush, the descendant of David, was the grandson of Shechaniah (see marginal reference).
Most of these names Ezra 8:2-14 occur also as those of heads of families in the list of the Jews who returned with Zerubbabel Ezra 2:3-15. The Septuagint and Syriac versions supply omissions in Ezra 8:5, Ezra 8:10.
Ezr 8:1-14. Ezra's Companions from Babylon.
1. this is the genealogy of them that went up with me from Babylon—The number given here amounts to 1754. But this is the register of adult males only, and as there were women and children also (Ezr 8:21), the whole caravan may be considered as comprising between six thousand and seven thousand.Of the sons of Pharosh, i.e. one of the sons of Pharosh; whereby he is differenced from the other Shechaniah, Ezra 8:5.
By genealogy of the males: though the males only be expressed here, and in the succeeding verses, yet it is more than probable they carried the women along with them, as they did carry little ones as it is expressed here, Ezra 8:21. Ezra 8:5,
Zechariah: and with him were reckoned by genealogy, of the males an hundred and fifty; males only were reckoned, not women and children; though that there were such that went up is clear from Ezra 8:21, from hence to the end of Ezra 8:14 an account is given of the number of the males that went up with Ezra, who were chiefly, if not altogether, sons of those that went up with Zerubbabel; such of them as were left there behind, and now returned, at least a great number of them, see Ezra 2:1, it is particularly remarked of the sons of Adonikam, Ezra 8:13, that they were the last of them; not that they were the last that came in to go with Ezra, or were backward and dilatory, but the last with respect to the first of his sons that were gone before, and seem with them to be the whole of his family; the number of all that went up under their respective heads amounts to 1496.Of the sons of Shechaniah, of the sons of Pharosh; Zechariah: and with him were reckoned by genealogy of the males an hundred and fifty.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)3. This verse should begin with ‘of the sons of Parosh’ (see note on Ezra 8:2).
‘by genealogy of the males’. The present list differs in this respect from that recorded in chap. 2. There the total numbers are given; here the number of the males only.
3–14. The register of the laity or “the men of the people of Israel” as in Ezra 2:2.
The names of these houses with the exception of Shechaniah (Ezra 8:5) and Shelomith (Ezra 8:10) appear also in chap. 2 and Nehemiah 7. But it is most probable that the text has in the case of both these exceptions suffered (see notes on the verses), and that the houses of Zattu and Bani (Ezra 2:8; Ezra 2:10) are represented by Shechaniah and Shelomith.
Twelve households are represented by their chiefs and the number of their males given. The number ‘twelve’ was perhaps designedly taken to symbolize the united Israel.
The parallel list in 1 Esdras does not contain many variations. The following table places them side by side.
1Es 8:30 ff.
Of the sons of Parosh, Zechariah,
Of the sons of Pahath-Moab, Eliehoenai, the son of Zerahiah,
Of the sons of Shechaniah, the son of Jahaziel,
Of the sons of Zathoe, Sechenias, the son of Jezelus,
Of the sons of Adin, Ebed, the son of Jonathan,
Of the sons of Adin, Obeth, the son of Jonathan,
Of the sons of Elam, Jeshaiah the son of Athalian,
Of the sons of Elam, Josias, the son of Gotholias,
Of the sons of Shephatiah, Zebadiah, the son of Michael,
Of the sons of Saphatias, Zaraias, son of Michael,
Of the sons of Joab, Obadiah, the son of Jehiel,
Of the sons of Joab, Abadias, the son of Jezelus,
Of the sons of Shelomith, the son of Josiphiah,
Of the sons of Banid, Assalimoth, the son of Josaphias,
Of the sons of Bebai, Zechariah, the son of Bebai,
Of the sons of Astath, Johannes, the son of Acatan,
Of the sons of Azgad, Jonathan, the son of Hakkatan,
Of the sons of Adonikam, Eliphelet, Jeuel, Shemaiah,
Of the sons of Adonicam the last, … Eliphalet, Jeuel and Samaias,
Of the sons of Bigvai, Uthai and Zabbud,
Of the sons of Bago, Uthi, the son of Istalcurus,
The total numbers given in the Hebrew text are 1496, in 1 Esdr. 1690.Verse 3. - Of the sons of Shechaniah. This clause should be attached to the preceding verse, since it refers to Hattush, who was Shechaniah's grandson; and ver. 3 should begin with the words, "Of the sons of Pharosh, Zechariah."
"Thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God which is in thy hand (בידך דּי like Ezra 7:14), set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are on this side the river, namely all such as know the laws of thy God, and teach ye them that know them not." The form מנּי is imper. Pael for מנּי, the A sound probably passing in rapid speech into the flatter E sound. "All the people on this side the river" is limited to Israelites or Jews by the further particulars, "who know the law of thy God," etc. These are to receive from Ezra judges, viz., such as are acquainted with the law, i.e., Israelite judges, and thus to be placed under the jurisdiction established at Jerusalem. The sentence, "and they who know it (the law) not, them teach ye, make them acquainted with it," does not refer to the heathen, but to born Israelites or Jews, who, living among the heathen, had not hitherto made the Mosaic law the rule of their lives. Such were the judges to constrain to the observance and obedience of the law.
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