And he put the breastplate on him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)And he put the breast-plate upon him.—Called more fully, “the breast-plate of judgment,” which was also a distinctive pontifical garment, and which was made of the same costly materials and the same skilful work as the ephod. (See Exodus 28:15, &c.)
Also he put in the breast-plate the Urim and the Thummim.—Better, and he put into, &c. (see Exodus 28:30), that is, Moses put into the bag of the breast-plate (comp. Exodus 25:16) these material objects which were separate from the breast-plate, as well as from the gems set in the breast-plate. (See Exodus 28:30.)Exodus 28.
also he put in the breastplate the Urim and Thummim: that is, Moses did it, as all the rest; for there is no reason to be given why this should be appropriated to God as a divine work, distinct from the rest; and these seem to be the twelve precious stones set in the breastplate, whose names are given, Exodus 27:17 and if they are not intended, no account is here given of them; but since in Exodus 29:8 an account is given of the stones, and of the setting of them in the breastplate, and no mention is made of the Urim and Thummim, and here notice is taken of them, but nothing said of the stones; it seems pretty plain they must be the same; See Gill on Exodus 28:30.And he put the breastplate upon him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)8. And he placed the breastplate upon him] The breastplate of Judgement, described Exodus 28:15-30; Exodus 39:8-21, was made of the same material as the ephod, and being twice as long as it was broad, became when folded a square of which each side was a span long, and served as a pocket to contain the Urim and the Thummim. It was fastened to the ephod by means of rings of gold, golden cords, and ‘a lace of blue’ or ribbon, though the exact manner of its attachment is not clear. The meaning of the word ‘breastplate’ (Heb. ḥôshen) is uncertain; either ‘ornament,’ referring to the richness of its material, or ‘pocket,’ indicating the purpose for which it was used. Cp. Exodus 28:13-30 and the notes on the passage.
the Urim and the Thummim] That is, the Lights and the Perfections, as R.V. mg. Neither here nor in any other place where Urim and Thummim are mentioned is any further description of these objects given, nor of the manner in which they were employed. See Driver on Exod. pp. 313 f.Exodus 29:1-37). - The consecration of Aaron and his sons as priests was carried out by Moses according to the instructions in Exodus 29:1-36; Exodus 40:12-15; and the anointing of the tabernacle, with the altar and its furniture, as prescribed in Exodus 29:37; Exodus 30:26-29, and Exodus 40:9-11, was connected with it (Leviticus 8:10, Leviticus 8:11).
Leviticus 8:1-5 contain an account of the preparations for this holy act, the performance of which was enjoined upon Moses by Jehovah after the publication of the laws of sacrifice (Leviticus 8:1). Moses brought the persons to be consecrated, the official costume that had been made for them (Exodus 28), the anointing oil (Exodus 30:23.), and the requisite sacrificial offerings (Exodus 29:1-3), to the door of the tabernacle (i.e., into the court, near the altar of burnt-offering), and then gathered "the whole congregation" - that is to say, the nation in the persons of its elders-there also (see my Archeologie ii. p. 221). The definite article before the objects enumerated in Leviticus 8:2 may be explained on the ground that they had all been previously and more minutely described. The "basket of the unleavened" contained, according to Exodus 29:2-3, (1) unleavened bread, which is called חלּה in Leviticus 8:26, i.e., round flat bread-cakes, and לחם כּכּר (loaf of bread) in Exodus 29:23, and was baked for the purpose of the consecration (see at Leviticus 8:31, Leviticus 8:32); (2) unleavened oil-cakes; and (3) unleavened flat cakes covered with oil (see at Leviticus 2:4 and Leviticus 7:12).
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