And he put on him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod on him, and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound it to him therewith.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)And he put upon him the coat.—Better, and he put upon him the tunic. For this garment see Leviticus 6:10, and Exodus 28:39. It will be seen that the first article of dress—viz., the drawers—distinctly mentioned in Exodus 28:42, is here omitted. This arises from the fact that, being nearest to the skin, Aaron put them on himself behind the curtain, immediately after his ablution.
And girded him with the girdle.—Not the band of the ephod, which is mentioned further on by the name of “curious girdle,” but the one made of needlework, with which the tunic was girded about the loins. (See Leviticus 6:10, and Exodus 28:39.)
And put the ephod upon him.—The ephod, which was the distinctive vestment of the high priest, was a sleeveless garment, and was worn over the shoulders. It was made of blue, purple, scarlet, and fine-twined linen, interwoven with golden threads. (See Exodus 28:6-7.)
And he girded him with the curious girdle.—Better, and girded him with the band. This band was not only made of the same costly materials as the ephod, but was woven out of the same piece on either side of the garment, so that the ephod had as it were two hands, which constituted the band. (See Exodus 28:8.) It will be seen that this is entirely different from the girdle which was tied around the tunic, mentioned in the former part of this verse.Exodus 28. Exodus 28:42 are not here mentioned, because they were not to be put on at his consecration, but afterwards in the execution of his office. Exodus 28:39 and all the garments were put on just in the order they are here declared; no mention is made indeed of the linen breeches, since it is highly probable these were put on by Aaron himself in some apartment in the tabernacle, or before came thither; it not being so decent to put on, or have these put on, in the sight of the whole congregation:
and girded him with the girdle; the girdle of needlework with which the linen coat was girt to him, and was distinct from the curious girdle of the ephod after mentioned, Exodus 28:39.
and clothed him with the robe: the robe of the ephod, which had at the hem of it golden bells and pomegranates, Exodus 28:31.
and put the ephod upon him; made of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen, which had two shoulder pieces, and on them two onyx stones, on which were engraved the names of the twelve tribes, Exodus 28:6.
and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound it unto him therewith; which was made of the same with the ephod, and by which it was girt close unto him; of the mystical meaning of these garments. See Gill on Exodus 28:39, Exodus 28:31, Exodus 28:32, Exodus 28:33, Exodus 28:34, Exodus 28:35, Exodus 28:6, Exodus 28:7, Exodus 28:8, Exodus 28:9, Exodus 28:10, Exodus 28:11, Exodus 28:12.And he put upon him the coat, and girded him with the girdle, and clothed him with the robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he girded him with the curious girdle of the ephod, and bound it unto him therewith.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)7–9. (b) vesting; cp. Exodus 29:5-6. The garments are mentioned in a different order in Exodus 28:4, and some of them are there described more fully in Leviticus 8:6 ff. The reader may refer to the notes in Driver’s commentary. The ‘linen breeches’ (Exodus 28:42) are not mentioned here.
the coat] the tunic, Heb. kuttoneth or kĕthoneth. A long tunic with sleeves, secured by a girdle, or sash, somewhat like a dressing gown. It was the principal garment of ordinary life, and made of cotton, linen, or wool. The high priest’s coat, or tunic, was made of fine linen (shçsh) and ornamented with a pattern. Cp. Exodus 28:4, where it is described as ‘a coat of chequer work’ (a broidered coat, A.V.), and in Exodus 28:39 as woven ‘in chequer work of fine linen’; the exact meaning of the Heb. is uncertain, but it not improbably denotes something of the nature of a check.
the girdle] sash, the work of the embroiderer (Exodus 28:39), made in the same way as the screen (hanging A.V.) for the entrance to the Tent (Exodus 26:36) and to the Court (Leviticus 27:16). It was of considerable length (according to the Talmud about 48 ft.) and was passed round the body several times (Jos. Ant. iii. 7. 2). It seems to have been accidentally omitted in Exodus 29:5. It must be distinguished from the ‘cunningly woven band of the ephod’ (cp. Exodus 28:8, etc.), translated in A.V. ‘curious girdle.’
the robe] called ‘the robe of the ephod,’ Exodus 28:31; Exodus 29:5; Exodus 39:22 f. A garment all blue with a hole for the head, and a binding of woven work round the whole to prevent its being rent. The Heb. word mě‘îl is applied to the robe (A.V. coat) made by Hannah for her son Samuel (1 Samuel 2:19), and to the robe (A.V. mantle) of Samuel which was rent by Saul (1 Samuel 15:27). The clothing of the High Priest, though of costly material, is so far like that of other people, and similar to that worn by the Arabs of the present day; an under garment bound with a sash, and an outer robe reaching nearly to the ground, but this outer garment is now worn open in front. According to Josephus (Ant. iii. 7. 4, B.J. 8:5. 7) the robe of the ephod reached to the feet, but some writers describe it as shorter than the tunic. Its fringe of pomegranates and bells is described Exodus 28:33-35; Exodus 39:24-26 note the addition of ‘pure’ to ‘gold’ in the second passage), but being a part of the robe is not mentioned here or in Exodus 29.
the ephod] This garment (described Exodus 28:6 ff; Exodus 39:2-5) was made of fine twined linen with blue purple and scarlet threads, and fine gold wire. Its exact shape cannot be determined. There were two shoulder straps, on each of which was an engraved onyx stone, and a band made of the same material as the ephod and woven with it in one piece, which served to gird the ephod over the other garments. This band is called ‘the cunningly woven band’ (the curious girdle A.V.) of the ephod; the Heb. ḥçshĕb denotes textile work of the highest grade, employed only for the curtains of the Dwelling, the veil, the ephod, and the pouch for the Urim and Thummim. See note on Exodus 26:1, where terms used for the different kinds of woven work are distinguished. The words ‘cunning,’ ‘cunningly’ were in Old English used to denote what is now termed ‘skilful,’ ‘skilfully.’ If the ephod consisted of front and back pieces, then the whole garment with its band would form a kind of waistcoat; if it consisted of a front piece only, it would resemble an apron. See Driver on Exodus 28:5-12 and p. 312.Verses 7-9. - The robing. The various articles of the priestly dress had been appointed and described before (Exodus 28, 29). In these verses we see the order in which they were put on. After the priests had, no doubt, changed their linen drawers, there came, first, the coat, that is, a close-fitting tunic of white linen, made with sleeves and covering the whole body; next the girdle of the tunic, that is, a linen sash for tying the tunic round the body, with variegated ends hanging on each side to the ankles; thirdly, the robe, that is, a blue vesture, woven of one piece, with holes for the head and arms to pass through, reaching from the neck to below the knee, the bottom being ornamented with blue, purple, and scarlet pomegranates, alternating with golden bells; fourthly, the ephod, which consisted of two shoulder-pieces, or epaulettes, made of variegated linen and gold thread, fastened together in front and at the back by a narrow strap or band, from which hung, before and behind the wearer, two pieces of cloth confined below by the curious girdle of the ephod, that is, by a sash made of the same material as the ephod itself. Into the ephod were sewn two onyxes, one on each shoulder, in gold filigree settings, one of them engraven with the names of half of the tribes, and the other with the remaining half; and from two rosettes or buttons by the side of these stones depended twisted gold chains for the support of the breastplate. Fifth came the breastplate, which was a square pocket, made of embroidered linen, a span long and a span broad, worn upon the breast and hanging from the gold chains above mentioned, the lower ends of the gold chain being tied to two rings at the upper and outer corner of the breastplate, while the upper and inner corner of the same was attached to the ephod by blue thread running through two sets of rings in the breastplate and ephod respectively. The outer side of the breastplate was stiffened and adorned by twelve precious stones, set in four rows of three, each stone having on it the name of one of the tribes of Israel. The breastplate being double and the two sides and the bottom being sewn up, the pocket formed by it had its opening at the top. Into this pocket were placed the Urim and the Thummim, which were probably two balls of different colours, one of which on being drawn out indicated the approval of God, and the other his disapproval, as to any point on which the high priest consulted him. (The Jewish tradition, that the Divine answer by the Urim and the Thummim came by a supernatural light thrown on certain letters in the names of the tribes, has no foundation.) The last part of the dress to be put on was the mitre, or head-dress of linen, probably of the nature of a turban; to which, by a blue string, was attached the golden plate, in such a way that it rested lengthwise on the forehead, and on this plate or holy crown were inscribed the words," Holiness to the Lord." The investiture took place as the Lord commanded Moses, that is, in accordance with the instructions given in Exodus 28. Its purpose and its meaning in the eyes of the people would have been twofold: first, after the manner of the king's crown and the judge's robe, it served to manifest the fact that the function of priest was committed to the wearer; and next, it symbolized the necessity of being clothed upon with the righteousness of God, in order to be able to act as interpreter and mediator between God and man, thus foreshadowing the Divine Nature of him who should be the Mediator in antitype. Exodus 29:1-37). - The consecration of Aaron and his sons as priests was carried out by Moses according to the instructions in Exodus 29:1-36; Exodus 40:12-15; and the anointing of the tabernacle, with the altar and its furniture, as prescribed in Exodus 29:37; Exodus 30:26-29, and Exodus 40:9-11, was connected with it (Leviticus 8:10, Leviticus 8:11).
Leviticus 8:1-5 contain an account of the preparations for this holy act, the performance of which was enjoined upon Moses by Jehovah after the publication of the laws of sacrifice (Leviticus 8:1). Moses brought the persons to be consecrated, the official costume that had been made for them (Exodus 28), the anointing oil (Exodus 30:23.), and the requisite sacrificial offerings (Exodus 29:1-3), to the door of the tabernacle (i.e., into the court, near the altar of burnt-offering), and then gathered "the whole congregation" - that is to say, the nation in the persons of its elders-there also (see my Archeologie ii. p. 221). The definite article before the objects enumerated in Leviticus 8:2 may be explained on the ground that they had all been previously and more minutely described. The "basket of the unleavened" contained, according to Exodus 29:2-3, (1) unleavened bread, which is called חלּה in Leviticus 8:26, i.e., round flat bread-cakes, and לחם כּכּר (loaf of bread) in Exodus 29:23, and was baked for the purpose of the consecration (see at Leviticus 8:31, Leviticus 8:32); (2) unleavened oil-cakes; and (3) unleavened flat cakes covered with oil (see at Leviticus 2:4 and Leviticus 7:12).
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