Psalm 3:6
I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people, that have set themselves against me round about.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(6) That have set themselvesi.e., have arrayed themselves as for battle. (See 1Kings 20:12.)

Psalm 3:6. I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people — Were I beset with as many nations as I see men now encamp themselves on all sides against me, I should not be at all daunted at it. “Faith,” says Dr. Horne, “revived and invigorated by prayer, and fixed on God alone, is a stranger to fear in the worst of times. The innumerable examples of saints rescued from tribulation, and, above all, the resurrection of the Son of God from the dead, render the believer bold as a lion, although the name of his adversary be legion.”

3:4-8 Care and grief do us good, when they engage us to pray to God, as in earnest. David had always found God ready to answer his prayers. Nothing can fix a gulf between the communications of God's grace towards us, and the working of his grace in us; between his favour and our faith. He had always been very safe under the Divine protection. This is applicable to the common mercies of every night, for which we ought to give thanks every morning. Many lie down, and cannot sleep, through pain of body, or anguish of mind, or the continual alarms of fear in the night. But it seems here rather to be meant of the calmness of David's spirit, in the midst of his dangers. The Lord, by his grace and the consolations of his Spirit, made him easy. It is a great mercy, when we are in trouble, to have our minds stayed upon God. Behold the Son of David composing himself to his rest upon the cross, that bed of sorrows; commending his Spirit into the Father's hands in full confidence of a joyful resurrection. Behold this, O Christian: let faith teach thee how to sleep, and how to die; while it assures thee that as sleep is a short death, so death is only a longer sleep; the same God watches over thee, in thy bed and in thy grave. David's faith became triumphant. He began the psalm with complaints of the strength and malice of his enemies; but concludes with rejoicing in the power and grace of his God, and now sees more with him than against him. Salvation belongeth unto the Lord; he has power to save, be the danger ever so great. All that have the Lord for their God, are sure of salvation; for he who is their God, is the God of Salvation.I will not be afraid - As the result of this new proof of the divine protection, and in view of all that God has done and has promised, the psalmist now says that he would not be afraid though any number of foes should rise up against him. Perhaps this confiding and exulting spirit may be regarded in some measure as the "result" of the calm and refreshing slumber which he had enjoyed. The mind as well as the body had been refreshed and invigorated. With the bright light of a new morning he looked with more cheerful views and hopes on the things around him, and felt new strength to meet the dangers to which he was exposed. Who in trouble and sorrow has not felt this? Who has not experienced the influence of the slumbers of a night and of the light of the morning, in giving new vigour and inspiring new hopes, as if the returning day was an emblem of brighter scenes in life, and the passing away of the shades of night a token that all trouble and sorrow would flee away?

Of ten thousands of people - Myriads: Though myriads are arrayed against me. He does not, of course, pretend to any exactness here; but he felt that the number of his enemies was very great. This "was" the case in the rebellion of Absalom. Ahithophel proposed to Absalom to "choose out twelve thousand men" with whom he might pursue after David, implying that the number with him was actually much greater than that, 2 Samuel 17:1)

That have set themselves against me - That have arrayed themselves against me; or that have risen up in rebellion against me.

Round about - Intending to hem me in on every side. Of course this was to be apprehended in such a rebellion; yet David says that he could now look with calmness on all this, for he had confidence in God. Compare Psalm 56:3.

6. ten thousands of people—or, "myriads," any very great number (compare 2Sa 16:18). So that I see no human way to escape.

I will not be afraid of ten thousands of the people,.... David was a man of courage from his youth; the instances of his attacking the lion and the bear, when he kept his father's sheep, his engaging with Goliath, and his military exploits, show it; and though there were now many thousands up in arms against him, and his own son at the head of them; all the tribes of Israel were revolting from him, and he was only attended with a few of his friends, yet he was not dismayed; for that he refers to this insurrection appears by what follows,

that have set themselves against me round about; and this was owing not to himself; but to the Lord's sustaining of him; see Psalm 27:1; and such courage and greatness of soul did his antitype the Messiah express, and to a greater degree, when Judas, with his band of soldiers, and the multitude with clubs and staves, entered the garden to apprehend him; and when the prince of this world was marching towards him, and when he was engaged with all the powers of darkness, and when the sorrows of death compassed him about, yet he failed not, nor was he discouraged: and something of this spirit appears in true believers, When they are in the exercise of faith, have the presence of God, and the discoveries of his love; they are then not afraid what man can do unto them; nor are they afraid of devils themselves, but wrestle against them; nor of any nor all their enemies, they having victory over them, given by God through Christ.

I will not be afraid of (c) ten thousands of people, that have set themselves against me round about.

(c) When he considered the truth of God's promise, and tried the same, his faith increased marvellously.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
6. Cp. Psalm 27:3. Numbers were on the side of Absalom, and but for the divinely sent infatuation which made him reject Ahithophel’s clever advice, in all probability David’s handful of followers would have been overwhelmed without effort (2 Samuel 17:1 ff.).

set themselves against me] A private individual could hardly speak thus; and we are reminded of Ahithophel’s counsel to strike one blow at the king, and save a civil war.

Verse 6. - I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people. (On the vast multitude of people that had collected to attack the fugitive king, see the comment on ver. 1.) David, however, did not fear them. Like Asa (2 Chronicles 14:11) and Judas Maccabeus (1 Macc. 3:18), he knew that there was no zeal might in ,' the multitude of an host" (Psalm 33:16). God could save equally with many or with few, and against many or against few (comp. 2 Kings 6:15-17). That have set themselves against me round about; or, ranged themselves against me (Kay) - a military term (comp. Isaiah 22:7). Psalm 3:6(Heb.: 3:6-7) That this God will protect him, His protection during the past night is now a pledge to him in the early morning. It is a violation of the rules of grammar to translate ואישׁנה: I shall go to sleep, or: I am going to sleep. The 1 pers. fut. consec. which is indicated by the ו, is fond of taking an ah of direction, which gives subjective intensity to the idea of sequence: "and thus I then fell asleep," cf. Psalm 7:5; Psalm 119:55, and frequently, Genesis 32:6, and more especially so in the later style, Ezra 9:3; Nehemiah 13:21, vid., Ges. 49, 2, Bttcher, Neue Aehrenlese, No. 412. It is a retrospective glance at the past night. Awaking in health and safety, he feels grateful to Him to whom he owes it: יהוה יסמכני. It is the result of the fact that Jahve supports him, and that God's hand is his pillow.

(Note: Referred to the other David, Psalm 3:6 has become an Easter-morning call, vid., Val. Herberger's Paradies-Blmlein aus dem Lustgarten der Psalmen (Neue Ausg. 1857) S. 25.)

Because this loving, almighty hand is beneath his head (Sol 2:6) he is inaccessible and therefore also devoid of fear. שׁית (שׁוּת) carries its object in itself: to take up one's position, as in Isaiah 22:7, synon. חנה Psalm 28:3 and שׂים 1 Kings 20:12, cf. ἐπιτιθέναι τινί. David does not put a merely possible case. All Israel, that is to say ten thousands, myriads, were gone over to Absolom. Here, at the close of the third strophe, סלה is wanting because the לא אירא (I will not fear) is not uttered in a tone of triumph, but is only a quiet, meek expression of believing confidence. If the instruments struck up boldly and suddenly here, then a cry for help, urged forth by the difficulties that still continually surrounded him, would not be able to follow.

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