Psalm 89:22
The enemy shall not exact upon him; nor the son of wickedness afflict him.
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(22) Exact.—This meaning is possible, and is supported by the LXX. and Vulgate, “shall not get profit.” There may be an allusion to Deuteronomy 15:6, but perhaps it is better to take the verb in the same sense as the Hebrew margin of Psalm 55:15, “shall not surprise him;” Symmachus has, “lead him astray.”

89:19-37 The Lord anointed David with the holy oil, not only as an emblem of the graces and gifts he received, but as a type of Christ, the King Priest, and Prophet, anointed with the Holy Ghost without measure. David after his anointing, was persecuted, but none could gain advantage against him. Yet all this was a faint shadow of the Redeemer's sufferings, deliverance, glory, and authority, in whom alone these predictions and promises are fully brought to pass. He is the mighty God. This is the Redeemer appointed for us, who alone is able to complete the work of our salvation. Let us seek an interest in these blessings, by the witness of the Holy Spirit in our hearts. As the Lord corrected the posterity of David for their transgressions, so his people shall be corrected for their sins. Yet it is but a rod, not a sword; it is to correct, not to destroy. It is a rod in the hand of God, who is wise, and knows what he does; gracious, and will do what is best. It is a rod which they shall never feel, but when there is need. As the sun and moon remain in heaven, whatever changes there seem to be in them, and again appear in due season; so the covenant of grace made in Christ, whatever alteration seems to come to it, should not be questioned.The enemy shall not exact upon him - The literal meaning here is derived from the force sometimes used in extorting or demanding a debt, where no indulgence is shown, but where it is exacted to the last mite, whether the man is able to pay it or not. Compare Matthew 18:25, Matthew 18:28. Then it is used to denote oppression, or subjugation, which is the idea here. The enemy shall not be suffered to act the part of one who rigidly exacts the payment of a debt; that is, he shall not be allowed to oppress him.

Nor the son of wickedness afflict him - This is copied almost literally from 2 Samuel 7:10. The phrase "the son of wickedness" means simply the wicked. He shall not fall into the hands, or under the power of wicked men.

22-25. by restraining and conquering his enemies, and performing My gracious purpose of extending his dominion— Not exact upon him; not conquer him, or make him tributary. Or, shall not deceive or circumvent him, as this word is used, Genesis 3:13 2 Kings 18:29.

Afflict him, to wit, so as to overthrow or destroy him.

The enemy shall not exact upon him,.... The enemy is the devil, as in the interpretation of the parable of the tares, Matthew 13:39, the implacable enemy of Christ and his church; and yet, notwithstanding all his enmity and malice, he could not "exact", or get more inflicted on him, than the law and justice of God required of him, as the sinner's surety; or could not "exact" a tribute of him, or make him tributary to him; or, in other words, conquer him, and subject him to him: so far from it, that he was conquered by Christ, and all his principalities and powers spoiled; or could not "deceive" him, in which sense the word (b) is sometimes used; and so the Targum here: though he deceived Eve, he could not deceive the Messiah, the seed of the woman; he tried it, in person, by his temptations in the wilderness, and by his agents and instruments, the Scribes and Pharisees: but in vain, and to no purpose; he could not succeed:

nor the son of wickedness afflict him: at least not always: he was indeed afflicted, as by wicked men, and by Satan the wicked one, yet not so as to be overcome by any; and as Christ personal, so Christ mystical, or his church and people, are afflicted by the sons of wickedness; yet, sooner or later, they are delivered out of all their afflictions. Antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that wicked one, that is eminently so, and may be well called "the son of wickedness", has long and greatly oppressed the people of Christ, and his interest; but he shall not always; he shall be destroyed with the spirit of his mouth, and with the brightness of his coming, 2 Thessalonians 2:3. This passage is applied to the Messiah by the Jews (c).

(b) "non imponet ei", Tigurine version; "non seducet eum", so some in Vatablus; "non decipiet eum", Gejerus, Schmidt. (c) Yalkut Simeoni, par. 2. fol. 56. 3.

The enemy shall not exact upon him; nor the son of wickedness afflict him.
22. shall not exact upon him] Shall not oppress him as a creditor oppresses a debtor. But the sense is doubtful, and the word probably means surprise him, fall upon him unawares, as in Psalm 55:15.

nor the son of wickedness afflict him] The phrase is taken from 2 Samuel 7:10, where however it is applied to the people.

Verse 22. - The enemy shall not exact upon him; nor the son of wickedness afflict him (see 2 Samuel 7:10, which has supplied the very words of the second clause). Psalm 89:22Having thus again come to refer to the king of Israel, the poet now still further unfolds the promise given to the house of David. The present circumstances are a contradiction to it. The prayer to Jahve, for which the way is thus prepared, is for the removal of this contradiction. A long line, extending beyond the measure of the preceding lines, introduces the promises given to David. With אז the respective period of the past is distinctly defined. The intimate friend of Jahve (חסיד) is Nathan (1 Chronicles 17:15) or David, according as we translate בחזון "in a vision" or "by means of a vision." But side by side with the לחסידך we also find the preferable reading לחסידיך, which is followed in the renderings of the lxx, Syriac, Vulgate, Targum, Aquila, Symmachus, and the Quarta, and is adopted by Rashi, Aben-Ezra, and others, and taken up by Heidenheim and Baer. The plural refers to Samuel and Nathan, for the statement brings together what was revealed to these two prophets concerning David. עזר is assistance as a gift, and that, as the designation of the person succoured by it (שׁוּה על as in Psalm 21:6) with גּבּור shows, aid in battle. בּחוּר (from בּחר equals בּגר in the Mishna: to ripen, to be manly or of marriageable age, distinct from בּחיר in Psalm 89:4) is a young man, adolescens: while yet a young man David was raised out of his humble lowly condition (Psalm 78:71) high above the people. When he received the promise (2 Samuel 7) he had been anointed and had attained to the lordship over all Israel. Hence the preterites in Psalm 89:20-21, which are followed by promissory futures from Psalm 89:22 onwards. תּכּון is fut. Niph., to be established, to prove one's self to be firm, unchangeable (Psalm 78:37), a stronger expression than תּהיה, 1 Samuel 18:12, 1 Samuel 18:14; 2 Samuel 3:10. The Hiph. השּׁיא, derived from נשׁא equals נשׁה, to credit (vid., on Isaiah 24:2; Gesenius, Hengstenberg), does not give any suitable sense; it therefore signifies here as elsewhere, "to impose upon, surprise," with בּ, as in Psalm 55:16 with על. Psalm 89:23 is the echo of 2 Samuel 7:10.
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