2 Chronicles 20:3
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Then Jehoshaphat was afraid and set his face to seek the LORD, and proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah.

King James Bible
And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek the LORD, and proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah.

American Standard Version
And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek unto Jehovah; and he proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And Josaphat being seized with fear betook himself wholly to pray to the Lord, and he proclaimed a fast for all Juda.

English Revised Version
And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek unto the LORD; and he proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah.

Webster's Bible Translation
And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek the LORD, and proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah.

2 Chronicles 20:3 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Besides this, Jehoshaphat established at Jerusalem a supreme tribunal for the decision of difficult cases, which the judges of the individual cities could not decide. 2 Chronicles 19:8. "Moreover, in Jerusalem did Jehoshaphat set certain of the Levites, and of the priests, and of the chiefs of the fathers'-houses of Israel, for the judgment of the Lord, and for controversies (לריב)." From this clause Berth. correctly draws the conclusion, that as in Jerusalem, so also in the fenced cities (2 Chronicles 19:5), it was Levites, priests, and heads of the fathers'-houses who were made judges. This conclusion is not inconsistent with the fact that David appointed 6000 of the Levites to be shoterim and judges; for it does not follow from that that none but Levites were appointed judges, but only that the Levites were to perform an essential part in the administration of the law. The foundation of the judicial body in Israel was the appointment of judges chosen from the elders of the people (Exodus 18:21.; Deuteronomy 1:15.) by Moses, at Jethro's instigation, and under the divine sanction, David had no intention, by his appointment of some thousands of Levites to be officials (writers) and judges, to set aside the Mosaic arrangement; on the contrary, he thereby gave it the expansion which the advanced development of the kingdom required. For the simple relationships of the Mosaic time, the appointment of elders to be judges might have been sufficient; but when in the course of time, especially after the introduction of the kingship, the social and political relations became more complicated, it is probable that the need of appointing men with special skill in law, to co-operate with the judges chosen from among the elders, in order that justice might be administered in a right way, and in a manner corresponding to the law, made itself increasingly felt; that consequently David had felt himself called upon to appoint a greater number of Levites to this office, and that from that time forward the courts in the larger cities were composed of Levites and elders. The supreme court which Jehoshaphat set up in Jerusalem was established on a similar basis. For יהוה למשׁפּט we have in 2 Chronicles 19:11 דּבר־יהוה לכל, i.e., for all matters connected with religion and the worship and instead of קריב we have המּלך דּבר לכל, for every matter of the king, i.e., for all civil causes. The last clause, 2 Chronicles 19:8, ירוּשׁלים ויּשׁבוּ, cannot signify that the men called to this supreme tribunal went to Jerusalem to dwell there thenceforth (Ramb., etc.), or that the suitors went thither; for שׁוּב does not denote to betake oneself to a place, but to return, which cannot be said of the persons above named, since it is not said that they had left Jerusalem. With Kimchi and others, we must refer the words to the previous statement in 2 Chronicles 19:4, וגו בּעם ויּצא, and understand them as a supplementary statement, that Jehoshaphat and those who had gone forth with him among the people returned to Jerusalem, which would have come in more fittingly at the close of 2 Chronicles 19:7, and is to be rendered: "when they had returned to Jerusalem." The bringing in of this remark at so late a stage of the narrative, only after the establishment of the supreme tribunal has been mentioned, is explained by supposing that the historian was induced by the essential connection between the institution of the supreme court and the arrangement of the judicatories in the provincial cities, to leave out of consideration the order of time in describing the arrangements made by Jehoshaphat.

2 Chronicles 20:3 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

feared

Genesis 32:7-11,24-28 Then Jacob was greatly afraid and distressed: and he divided the people that was with him, and the flocks, and herds, and the camels...

Psalm 56:3,4 What time I am afraid, I will trust in you...

Isaiah 37:3-6 And they said to him, Thus said Hezekiah, This day is a day of trouble, and of rebuke, and of blasphemy...

Jonah 1:16 Then the men feared the LORD exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice to the LORD, and made vows.

Matthew 10:28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul...

himself [heb] his face
seek the Lord

2 Chronicles 11:16 And after them out of all the tribes of Israel such as set their hearts to seek the LORD God of Israel came to Jerusalem...

2 Chronicles 19:3 Nevertheless there are good things found in you, in that you have taken away the groves out of the land...

proclaimed

Judges 20:26 Then all the children of Israel, and all the people, went up, and came to the house of God, and wept, and sat there before the LORD...

1 Samuel 7:6 And they gathered together to Mizpeh, and drew water, and poured it out before the LORD, and fasted on that day, and said there...

Ezra 8:21-23 Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river of Ahava, that we might afflict ourselves before our God...

Esther 4:16 Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast you for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day...

Jeremiah 36:9 And it came to pass in the fifth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, in the ninth month...

Daniel 9:3 And I set my face to the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes:

Joel 1:14 Sanctify you a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the elders and all the inhabitants of the land into the house of the LORD your God...

Joel 2:12-18 Therefore also now, said the LORD, turn you even to me with all your heart, and with fasting, and with weeping, and with mourning...

Jonah 3:5-9 So the people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth...

Cross References
1 Samuel 7:6
So they gathered at Mizpah and drew water and poured it out before the LORD and fasted on that day and said there, "We have sinned against the LORD." And Samuel judged the people of Israel at Mizpah.

2 Chronicles 19:3
Nevertheless, some good is found in you, for you destroyed the Asheroth out of the land, and have set your heart to seek God."

Ezra 8:21
Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river Ahava, that we might humble ourselves before our God, to seek from him a safe journey for ourselves, our children, and all our goods.

Jeremiah 36:9
In the fifth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah, king of Judah, in the ninth month, all the people in Jerusalem and all the people who came from the cities of Judah to Jerusalem proclaimed a fast before the LORD.

Jonah 3:7
And he issued a proclamation and published through Nineveh, "By the decree of the king and his nobles: Let neither man nor beast, herd nor flock, taste anything. Let them not feed or drink water,

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