Exodus 10:27
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go.

King James Bible
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

American Standard Version
But Jehovah hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Lord hardened Pharao's heart, and he would not let them go.

English Revised Version
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

Webster's Bible Translation
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

Exodus 10:27 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Ninth plague: The Darkness. - As Pharaoh's defiant spirit was not broken yet, a continuous darkness came over all the land of Egypt, with the exception of Goshen, without any previous announcement, and came in such force that the darkness could be felt. חשׁך וימשׁ: "and one shall feel, grasp darkness." המשׁ: as in Psalm 115:7; Judges 16:26, ψηλαφητὸν σκότος (lxx); not "feel in the dark," for משׁשׁ has this meaning only in the Piel with בּ (Deuteronomy 28:29). אפלה חשׁך: darkness of obscurity, i.e., the deepest darkness. The combination of two words or synonyms gives the greatest intensity to the thought. The darkness was so great that they could not see one another, and no one rose up from his place. The Israelites alone "had light in their dwelling-places." The reference here is not to the houses; so that we must not infer that the Egyptians were unable to kindle any lights even in their houses. The cause of this darkness is not given in the text; but the analogy of the other plagues, which had all of them a natural basis, warrants us in assuming, as most commentators have done, that there was the same here - that it was in fact the Chamsin, to which the lxx evidently allude in their rendering: σκότος καὶ γνόφος καὶ θύελλα. This wind, which generally blows in Egypt before and after the vernal equinox and lasts two or three days, usually rises very suddenly, and fills the air with such a quantity of fine dust and coarse sand, that the sun loses its brightness, the sky is covered with a dense veil, and it becomes so dark that "the obscurity cause by the thickest fog in our autumn and winter days is nothing in comparison" (Schubert). Both men and animals hide themselves from this storm; and the inhabitants of the towns and villages shut themselves up in the innermost rooms and cellars of their houses till it is over, for the dust penetrates even through well-closed windows. For fuller accounts taken from travels, see Hengstenberg (pp. 120ff.) and Robinson's Palestine i. pp. 287-289. Seetzen attributes the rising of the dust to a quantity of electrical fluid contained in the air. - The fact that in this case the darkness alone is mentioned, may have arisen from its symbolical importance. "The darkness which covered the Egyptians, and the light which shone upon the Israelites, were types of the wrath and grace of God" (Hengstenberg). This occurrence, in which, according to Arabian chroniclers of the middle ages, the nations discerned a foreboding of the day of judgment or of the resurrection, filled the king with such alarm that he sent for Moses, and told him he would let the people and their children go, but the cattle must be left behind. יצּג: sistatur, let it be placed, deposited in certain places under the guard of Egyptians, as a pledge of your return. Maneat in pignus, quod reversuri sitis, as Chaskuni correctly paraphrases it. But Moses insisted upon the cattle being taken for the sake of their sacrifices and burnt-offerings. "Not a hoof shall be left behind." This was a proverbial expression for "not the smallest fraction." Bochart gives instances of a similar introduction of the "hoof" into proverbial sayings by both Arabians and Romans (Hieroz. i. p. 490). This firmness on the part of Moses he defended by saying, "We know not with what we shall serve the Lord, till we come thither;" i.e., we know not yet what kind of animals or how many we shall require for the sacrifices; our God will not make this known to us till we arrive at the place of sacrifice. עבד with a double accusative as in Genesis 30:29; to serve any one with a thing.

Exodus 10:27 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Exodus 10:1,20 And the LORD said to Moses, Go in to Pharaoh: for I have hardened his heart, and the heart of his servants...

Exodus 4:21 And the LORD said to Moses, When you go to return into Egypt, see that you do all those wonders before Pharaoh...

Exodus 14:4,8 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honored on Pharaoh, and on all his host...

Revelation 9:20 And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands...

Revelation 16:10,11 And the fifth angel poured out his vial on the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness...

Cross References
Romans 9:18
So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.

Exodus 4:21
And the LORD said to Moses, "When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the miracles that I have put in your power. But I will harden his heart, so that he will not let the people go.

Exodus 10:20
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go.

Exodus 11:10
Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go out of his land.

Exodus 14:4
And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will pursue them, and I will get glory over Pharaoh and all his host, and the Egyptians shall know that I am the LORD." And they did so.

Exodus 14:8
And the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued the people of Israel while the people of Israel were going out defiantly.

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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