Exodus 12:12
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
For I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, and I will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD.

King James Bible
For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.

American Standard Version
For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am Jehovah.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, and will kill every firstborn in the land of Egypt both man and beast: and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the Lord.

English Revised Version
For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the LORD.

Webster's Bible Translation
For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast: and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD.

Exodus 12:12 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

"And it shall be to you for preservation (ye shall keep it) until the fourteenth day, and then...slay it at sunset." Among the reasons commonly assigned for the instruction to choose the lamb on the 10th, and keep it till the 14th, which Jonathan and Rashi supposed to refer to the Passover in Egypt alone, there is an element of truth in the one given most fully by Fagius, "that the sight of the lamb might furnish an occasion for conversation respecting their deliverance from Egypt,...and the mercy of God, who had so graciously looked upon them;" but this hardly serves to explain the interval of exactly four days. Hoffmann supposes it to refer to the four doroth (Genesis 15:16), which had elapsed since Israel was brought to Egypt, to grow into a nation. The probability of such an allusion, however, depends upon just what Hoffmann denies without sufficient reason, viz., upon the lamb being regarded as a sacrifice, in which Israel consecrated itself to its God. It was to be slain by "the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel:" not by the whole assembled people, as though they gathered together for this purpose, for the slaughtering took place in every house (Exodus 12:7); the meaning is simply, that the entire congregation, without any exception, was to slay it at the same time, viz., "between the two evenings" (Numbers 9:3, Numbers 9:5, Numbers 9:11), or "in the evening at sunset" (Deuteronomy 16:6). Different opinions have prevailed among the Jews from a very early date as to the precise time intended. Aben Ezra agrees with the Caraites and Samaritans in taking the first evening to be the time when the sun sinks below the horizon, and the second the time of total darkness; in which case, "between the two evenings" would be from 6 o'clock to 7:20. Kimchi and Rashi, on the other hand, regard the moment of sunset as the boundary between the two evenings, and Hitzig has lately adopted their opinion. According to the rabbinical idea, the time when the sun began to descend, viz., from 3 to 5 o'clock, was the first evening, and sunset the second; so that "between the two evenings" was from 3 to 6 o'clock. Modern expositors have very properly decided in favour of the view held by Aben Ezra and the custom adopted by the Caraites and Samaritans, from which the explanation given by Kimchi and Rashi does not materially differ. It is true that this argument has been adduced in favour of the rabbinical practice, viz., that "only by supposing the afternoon to have been included, can we understand why the day of Passover is always called the 14th (Leviticus 23:5; Numbers 9:3, etc.);" and also, that "if the slaughtering took place after sunset, it fell on the 15th Nisan, and not the 14th." But both arguments are based upon an untenable assumption. For it is obvious from Leviticus 23:32, where the fast prescribed for the day of atonement, which fell upon the 10th of the 7th month, is ordered to commence on the evening of the 9th day, "from even to even," that although the Israelites reckoned the day of 24 hours from the evening sunset to sunset, in numbering the days they followed the natural day, and numbered each day according to the period between sunrise and sunset. Nevertheless there is no formal disagreement between the law and the rabbinical custom. The expression in Deuteronomy 16:6, "at (towards) sunset," is sufficient to show that the boundary line between the two evenings is not to be fixed precisely at the moment of sunset, but only somewhere about that time. The daily evening sacrifice and the incense offering were also to be presented "between the two evenings" (Exodus 29:39, Exodus 29:41; Exodus 30:8; Numbers 28:4). Now as this was not to take place exactly at the same time, but to precede it, they could not both occur at the time of sunset, but the former must have been offered before that. Moreover, in later times, when the paschal lamb was slain and offered at the sanctuary, it must have been slain and offered before sunset, if only to give sufficient time to prepare the paschal meal, which was to be over before midnight. It was from these circumstances that the rabbinical custom grew up in the course of time, and the lax use of the word evening, in Hebrew as well as in every other language, left space enough for this. For just as we do not confine the term morning to the time before sunset, but apply it generally to the early hours of the day, so the term evening is not restricted to the period after sunset. If the sacrifice prescribed for the morning could be offered after sunrise, the one appointed for the evening might in the same manner be offered before sunset.

Exodus 12:12 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

pass

Exodus 12:23 For the LORD will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and when he sees the blood on the lintel, and on the two side posts...

Exodus 11:4,5 And Moses said, Thus said the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the middle of Egypt...

Amos 5:17 And in all vineyards shall be wailing: for I will pass through you, said the LORD.

will smite

Exodus 12:29,30 And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt...

Exodus 11:4-6 And Moses said, Thus said the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the middle of Egypt...

against

Numbers 33:4 For the Egyptians buried all their firstborn, which the LORD had smitten among them: on their gods also the LORD executed judgments.

1 Samuel 5:3 And when they of Ashdod arose early on the morrow, behold, Dagon was fallen on his face to the earth before the ark of the LORD...

1 Samuel 6:5 Why you shall make images of your tumors, and images of your mice that mar the land; and you shall give glory to the God of Israel...

1 Chronicles 14:12 And when they had left their gods there, David gave a commandment, and they were burned with fire.

Isaiah 19:1 The burden of Egypt. Behold, the LORD rides on a swift cloud, and shall come into Egypt...

Jeremiah 43:13 He shall break also the images of Bethshemesh, that is in the land of Egypt...

Zephaniah 2:11 The LORD will be terrible to them: for he will famish all the gods of the earth; and men shall worship him, every one from his place...

gods. or princes

Exodus 21:6 Then his master shall bring him to the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or to the door post...

Exodus 22:28 You shall not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of your people.

Psalm 82:1,6 God stands in the congregation of the mighty; he judges among the gods...

John 10:34 Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, You are gods?

I am the Lord

Exodus 6:2 And God spoke to Moses, and said to him, I am the LORD:

Isaiah 43:11-15 I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no savior...

Ezekiel 12:16 But I will leave a few men of them from the sword, from the famine, and from the pestilence...

Cross References
Exodus 6:2
God spoke to Moses and said to him, "I am the LORD.

Exodus 11:4
So Moses said, "Thus says the LORD: 'About midnight I will go out in the midst of Egypt,

Exodus 11:5
and every firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the handmill, and all the firstborn of the cattle.

Exodus 12:23
For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians, and when he sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and will not allow the destroyer to enter your houses to strike you.

Exodus 18:11
Now I know that the LORD is greater than all gods, because in this affair they dealt arrogantly with the people."

Numbers 33:4
while the Egyptians were burying all their firstborn, whom the LORD had struck down among them. On their gods also the LORD executed judgments.

Psalm 82:1
God has taken his place in the divine council; in the midst of the gods he holds judgment:

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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