Ezekiel 18:7
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
does not oppress anyone, but restores to the debtor his pledge, commits no robbery, gives his bread to the hungry and covers the naked with a garment,

King James Bible
And hath not oppressed any, but hath restored to the debtor his pledge, hath spoiled none by violence, hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment;

American Standard Version
and hath not wronged any, but hath restored to the debtor his pledge, hath taken nought by robbery, hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment;

Douay-Rheims Bible
And hath not wronged any man: but hath restored the pledge to the debtor, hath taken nothing away by violence: hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment:

English Revised Version
and hath not wronged any, but hath restored to the debtor his pledge, hath spoiled none by violence, hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment;

Webster's Bible Translation
And hath not oppressed any, but hath restored to the debtor his pledge, hath stripped none by violence, hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment:

Ezekiel 18:7 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Interpretation of the Riddle

Ezekiel 17:11. And the word of Jehovah came to me, saying, Ezekiel 17:12. Say to the refractory race: Do ye not know what this is? Say, Behold, the king of Babel came to Jerusalem and took its king and its princes, and brought them to himself to Babel. Ezekiel 17:13. And he took of the royal seed, and made a covenant with him, and caused him to enter into an oath; and he took the strong ones of the land: Ezekiel 17:14. That it might be a lowly kingdom, not to lift itself up, that he might keep his covenant, that it might stand. Ezekiel 17:15. But he rebelled against him by sending his messengers to Egypt, that it might give him horses and much people. Will he prosper? will he that hath done this escape? He has broken the covenant, and should he escape? Ezekiel 17:16. As I live, is the saying of the Lord Jehovah, surely in the place of the king, who made him king, whose oath he despised, and whose covenant he broke with him, in Babel he will die. Ezekiel 17:17. And not with great army and much people will Pharaoh act with him in the war, when they cast up a rampart and build siege-towers, to cut off many souls. Ezekiel 17:18. He has despised an oath to break the covenant, and, behold, he has given his hand and done all this; he will not escape. Ezekiel 17:19. Therefore thus saith the Lord Jehovah, As I live, surely my oath which he has despised, and my covenant which he has broken, I will give upon his head. Ezekiel 17:20. I will spread out my net over him, so that he will be taken in my snare, and will bring him to Babel, and contend with him there on account of his treachery which he has been guilty of towards me. Ezekiel 17:21. And all his fugitives in all his regiments, by the sword will they fall, and those who remain will be scattered to all winds; and ye shall see that I Jehovah have spoken it.

In Ezekiel 17:12-17 the parable in Ezekiel 17:2-10 is interpreted; and in Ezekiel 17:19-21 the threat contained in the parable is confirmed and still further expanded. We have an account of the carrying away of the king, i.e., Jehoiachin, and his princes to Babel in 2 Kings 24:11., Jeremiah 24:1, and Jeremiah 29:2. The king's seed (זרע המּלוּכה, Ezekiel 17:13, as in Jeremiah 41:1 equals זרע המּלך, 1 Kings 11:14) is Jehoiachin's uncle Mattaniah, whom Nebuchadnezzar made king under the name of Zedekiah (2 Kings 24:17), and from whom he took an oath of fealty (2 Chronicles 36:13). The strong of the land (אילי equals אוּלי, 2 Kings 24:15), whom Nebuchadnezzar took (לקח), i.e., took away to Babel, are not the heads of tribes and families (2 Kings 24:15); but the expression is used in a wide sense for the several classes of men of wealth, who are grouped together in 2 Kings 24:14 under the one term כּל־גּבּורי ח (אנשׁי חיל, 2 Kings 24:16), including masons, smiths, and carpenters (2 Kings 24:14 and 2 Kings 24:16), whereas the heads of tribes and families are classed with the court officials (סריסים, 2 Kings 24:15) under the title שׂריה (princes) in Ezekiel 17:12. The design of these measures was to make a lowly kingdom, which could not raise itself, i.e., could not revolt, and to deprive the vassal king of the means of breaking of the covenant. the suffix attached to לעמדהּ is probably to be taken as referring to ממלכה rather than בּריתי, although both are admissible, and would yield precisely the same sense, inasmuch as the stability of the kingdom was dependent upon the stability of the covenant. But Zedekiah rebelled (2 Kings 24:20). The Egyptian king who was to give Zedekiah horses and much people, in other words, to come to his assistance with a powerful army of cavalry and fighting men, was Hophrah, the Apries of the Greeks, according to Jeremiah 44:30 (see the comm. on 2 Kings 24:19-20). היצלח points back to תּצלח in Ezekiel 17:9; but here it is applied to the rebellious king, and is explained in the clause 'הימּלט וגו. The answer is given in Ezekiel 17:16 as a word of God confirmed by a solemn oath: he shall die in Babel, the capital of the king, who placed him on the throne, and Pharaoh will not render him any effectual help (Ezekiel 17:17). עשׂה אותו, as in Ezekiel 15:1-8 :59, to act with him, that is to say, assist him, come to his help. אותו refers to Zedekiah, not to Pharaoh, as Ewald assumes in an inexplicable manner. For 'שׁפך סללה , compare Ezekiel 4:2; and for the fact itself, Jeremiah 34:21-22, and Jeremiah 37:5, according to which, although an Egyptian army came to the rescue of Jerusalem at the time when it was besieged by the Chaldeans, it was repulsed by the Chaldeans who marched to meet it, without having rendered any permanent assistance to the besieged.

In Ezekiel 17:18, the main thought that breach of faith can bring no deliverance is repeated for the sake of appending the further expansion contained in Ezekiel 17:19-21. נתן ידו, he gave his hand, i.e., as a pledge of fidelity. The oath which Zedekiah swore to the king of Babel is designated in Ezekiel 17:19 as Jehovah's oath (אלתי), and the covenant made with him as Jehovah's covenant, because the oath had been sworn by Jehovah, and the covenant of fidelity towards Nebuchadnezzar had thereby been made implicite with Jehovah Himself; so that the breaking of the oath and covenant became a breach of faith towards Jehovah. Consequently the very same expressions are used in Ezekiel 17:16, Ezekiel 17:18, and Ezekiel 17:19, to designate this breach of oath, which are applied in Ezekiel 16:59 to the treacherous apostasy of Jerusalem (Israel) from Jehovah, the covenant God. And the same expressions are used to describe the punishment as in Ezekiel 12:13-14. נשׁפּט אתּו is construed with the accusative of the thing respecting which he was to be judged, as in 1 Samuel 12:7. Jehovah regards the treacherous revolt from Nebuchadnezzar as treachery against Himself (מעל); not only because Zedekiah had sworn the oath of fidelity by Jehovah, but also from the fact that Jehovah had delivered up His people and kingdom into the power of Nebuchadnezzar, so that revolt from him really became rebellion against God. את before כּל־מברחו is nota accus., and is used in the sense of quod adtinet ad, as, for example, in 2 Kings 6:5. מברחו, his fugitives, is rendered both by the Chaldee and Syriac "his brave men," or "heroes," and is therefore identified with מבחרו (his chosen ones), which is the reading in some manuscripts. But neither these renderings nor the parallel passage in Ezekiel 12:14, where סביבותיו apparently corresponds to it, will warrant our adopting this explanation, or making any alteration in the text. The Greek versions have πάσας φυγαδείας αὐτοῦ; Theodoret: ἐν πάσαις ταῖς φυγαδείαις αὐτοῦ; the Vulgate: omnes profugi ejus; and therefore they all had the reading מברחו, which also yields a very suitable meaning. The mention of some who remain, and who are to be scattered toward all the winds, is not at variance with the statement that all the fugitives in the wings of the army are to fall by the sword. The latter threat simply declares that no one will escape death by flight. But there is no necessity to take those who remain as being simply fighting men; and the word "all" must not be taken too literally.

Ezekiel 18:7 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

hath not

Ezekiel 18:12,16,18 Has oppressed the poor and needy, has spoiled by violence, has not restored the pledge, and has lifted up his eyes to the idols...

Ezekiel 22:12,13,27-29 In you have they taken gifts to shed blood; you have taken usury and increase...

Exodus 22:21-14 You shall neither vex a stranger, nor oppress him: for you were strangers in the land of Egypt...

Exodus 23:9 Also you shall not oppress a stranger: for you know the heart of a stranger, seeing you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

Leviticus 19:15 You shall do no unrighteousness in judgment: you shall not respect the person of the poor, nor honor the person of the mighty...

Leviticus 25:14 And if you sell ought to your neighbor, or buy ought of your neighbor's hand, you shall not oppress one another:

1 Samuel 12:3,4 Behold, here I am: witness against me before the LORD, and before his anointed: whose ox have I taken? or whose donkey have I taken...

Job 31:13-22 If I did despise the cause of my manservant or of my maidservant, when they contended with me...

Proverbs 3:31 Envy you not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways.

Proverbs 14:31 He that oppresses the poor reproaches his Maker: but he that honors him has mercy on the poor.

Proverbs 22:22,23 Rob not the poor, because he is poor: neither oppress the afflicted in the gate...

Isaiah 1:4 Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity, a seed of evildoers, children that are corrupters: they have forsaken the LORD...

Job 31:13-22 If I did despise the cause of my manservant or of my maidservant, when they contended with me...

Proverbs 3:31 Envy you not the oppressor, and choose none of his ways.

Proverbs 14:31 He that oppresses the poor reproaches his Maker: but he that honors him has mercy on the poor.

Proverbs 22:22,23 Rob not the poor, because he is poor: neither oppress the afflicted in the gate...

Isaiah 1:17 Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.

Isaiah 5:7 For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment...

Isaiah 33:15 He that walks righteously, and speaks uprightly; he that despises the gain of oppressions, that shakes his hands from holding of bribes...

Isaiah 58:6 Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free...

Jeremiah 7:6,7 If you oppress not the stranger, the fatherless, and the widow, and shed not innocent blood in this place...

Amos 2:6 Thus said the LORD; For three transgressions of Israel, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof...

Amos 8:4-6 Hear this, O you that swallow up the needy, even to make the poor of the land to fail...

Micah 2:1 Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil on their beds! when the morning is light, they practice it...

Micah 3:2 Who hate the good, and love the evil; who pluck off their skin from off them, and their flesh from off their bones;

Zechariah 7:9-11 Thus speaks the LORD of hosts, saying, Execute true judgment, and show mercy and compassions every man to his brother...

Malachi 3:5 And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers...

James 5:1-6 Go to now, you rich men, weep and howl for your miseries that shall come on you...

hath restored

Exodus 22:26 If you at all take your neighbor's raiment to pledge, you shall deliver it to him by that the sun goes down:

Deuteronomy 24:12,13,17 And if the man be poor, you shall not sleep with his pledge...

Job 22:6 For you have taken a pledge from your brother for nothing, and stripped the naked of their clothing.

Job 24:3,9 They drive away the donkey of the fatherless, they take the widow's ox for a pledge...

Amos 2:8 And they lay themselves down on clothes laid to pledge by every altar...

hath spoiled

Ezekiel 7:23 Make a chain: for the land is full of bloody crimes, and the city is full of violence.

Genesis 6:11,12 The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence...

Isaiah 59:6,7 Their webs shall not become garments, neither shall they cover themselves with their works: their works are works of iniquity...

Jeremiah 22:3,16,17 Thus said the LORD; Execute you judgment and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor: and do no wrong...

Amos 3:10 For they know not to do right, said the LORD, who store up violence and robbery in their palaces.

Amos 5:11,12 For as much therefore as your treading is on the poor, and you take from him burdens of wheat: you have built houses of hewn stone...

Amos 6:3 You that put far away the evil day, and cause the seat of violence to come near;

Zephaniah 1:9 In the same day also will I punish all those that leap on the threshold, which fill their masters' houses with violence and deceit.

hath given

Ezekiel 18:16 Neither has oppressed any, has not withheld the pledge, neither has spoiled by violence, but has given his bread to the hungry...

Deuteronomy 15:7-11 If there be among you a poor man of one of your brothers within any of your gates in your land which the LORD your God gives you...

Job 31:16-20 If I have withheld the poor from their desire, or have caused the eyes of the widow to fail...

Psalm 41:1 Blessed is he that considers the poor: the LORD will deliver him in time of trouble.

Psalm 112:4,9 To the upright there rises light in the darkness: he is gracious, and full of compassion, and righteous...

Proverbs 11:24,25 There is that scatters, and yet increases; and there is that withholds more than is meet, but it tends to poverty...

Proverbs 28:8,27 He that by usury and unjust gain increases his substance, he shall gather it for him that will pity the poor...

Isaiah 58:7-11 Is it not to deal your bread to the hungry, and that you bring the poor that are cast out to your house? when you see the naked...

Matthew 25:34-46 Then shall the King say to them on his right hand, Come, you blessed of my Father...

Luke 3:11 He answers and said to them, He that has two coats, let him impart to him that has none; and he that has meat, let him do likewise.

2 Corinthians 8:7-9 Therefore, as you abound in every thing, in faith, and utterance, and knowledge, and in all diligence, and in your love to us...

2 Corinthians 9:6-14 But this I say, He which sows sparingly shall reap also sparingly; and he which sows bountifully shall reap also bountifully...

James 2:13-17 For he shall have judgment without mercy, that has showed no mercy; and mercy rejoices against judgment...

1 John 3:16-19 Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brothers...

Cross References
Matthew 25:35
For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me,

Matthew 25:36
I was naked and you clothed me, I was sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me.'

Luke 3:11
And he answered them, "Whoever has two tunics is to share with him who has none, and whoever has food is to do likewise."

Leviticus 19:13
"You shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him. The wages of a hired worker shall not remain with you all night until the morning.

Deuteronomy 15:11
For there will never cease to be poor in the land. Therefore I command you, 'You shall open wide your hand to your brother, to the needy and to the poor, in your land.'

Deuteronomy 24:13
You shall restore to him the pledge as the sun sets, that he may sleep in his cloak and bless you. And it shall be righteousness for you before the LORD your God.

Isaiah 58:7
Is it not to share your bread with the hungry and bring the homeless poor into your house; when you see the naked, to cover him, and not to hide yourself from your own flesh?

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