Galatians 1:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Paul, an apostle—not from men nor through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead—

King James Bible
Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)

American Standard Version
Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead),

Douay-Rheims Bible
Paul, an apostle, not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead,

English Revised Version
Paul, an apostle (not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead),

Webster's Bible Translation
Paul, an apostle, (not from men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)

Weymouth New Testament
Paul, an Apostle sent not from men nor by any man, but by Jesus Christ and by God the Father, who raised Jesus from among the dead--

Galatians 1:1 Parallel
Vincent's Word Studies

An apostle

This title is prefixed to Romans, 1st and 2nd Corinthians, Ephesians, Colossians. Here with special emphasis, because Paul's apostleship had been challenged.

Of men - by man (ἀπ' ἀνθρώπων - δἰ ἀνθρώπου)

Better, from men - through man or a man. In contradiction of the assertion that he was not directly commissioned by Jesus Christ, like the twelve, but only by human authority. From men, as authorising the office; through man, as issuing the call to the person. He thus distinguishes himself from false apostles who did not derive their commissions from God, and ranks himself with the twelve. Man does not point to any individual, but is in antithesis to Jesus Christ, or may be taken as equals any man.

By Jesus Christ

See Acts 11:4-6; 1 Corinthians 11:1.

And God the Father

The genitive, governed by the preceding διὰ by or through. The idea is the same as an apostle by the will of God: 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Ephesians 1:1. Διὰ is used of secondary agency, as Matthew 1:22; Matthew 11:2; Luke 1:70; Acts 1:16; Hebrews 1:2. But we find διὰ θελήματος θεοῦ by the will of God, Romans 15:32; 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1, etc., and διὰ θεοῦ by God, Galatians 4:7. Also δἰ οὗ (God), 1 Corinthians 1:9; Hebrews 2:10.

Who raised him from the dead (τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν)

It was the risen Christ who made Paul an apostle. For resurrection the N.T. uses ἐγείρειν to raise up; ἐξεγείρειν to raise out of; ἔγερσις raising or rising; ἀνιστάναι to raise up; ἀνάστασις and ἐξανάστασις raising up and raising up out of. With νεκρὸς dead are the following combinations: ἐγείρειν ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν (never ἀπὸ νεκρῶν) to raise from the dead; ἐγ. ἐκ νεκ. or τῶν νεκ. to raise out of the dead; ἀναστήσαι to raise, ἀναστῆναι to be raised or to rise ἐκ. νεκ. (never ἀπὸ); ἀνάστ. ἐκ. νεκ.; or τῶν νεκ. resurrection of the dead; ἀνάστ. ἐκ. νεκ.; ἐξανάστασις ἐκ. νεκ rising or resurrection out of the dead or from among. It is impossible to draw nice distinctions between these phrases.

Galatians 1:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

an. See on

Romans 1:1 Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God,

1 Corinthians 1:1 Paul called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,


Galatians 1:11,12,17 But I certify you, brothers, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man...


Acts 1:16-26 Men and brothers, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled...

Acts 13:2-4 As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said...


Acts 9:6,15,16 And he trembling and astonished said, Lord, what will you have me to do? And the Lord said to him, Arise, and go into the city...

Acts 22:10,14-21 And I said, What shall I do, LORD? And the Lord said to me, Arise, and go into Damascus...

Acts 26:16-18 But rise, and stand on your feet: for I have appeared to you for this purpose...

Romans 1:4,5 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead...

2 Corinthians 3:1-3 Do we begin again to commend ourselves? or need we, as some others, letters of commendation to you...

Ephesians 3:8 To me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given...

1 Timothy 1:11-14 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust...

2 Timothy 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus,

Titus 1:3 But has in due times manifested his word through preaching, which is committed to me according to the commandment of God our Savior;


Matthew 28:18-20 And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, All power is given to me in heaven and in earth...

John 5:19 Then answered Jesus and said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he sees the Father do...

John 10:30 I and my Father are one.

John 20:21 Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be to you: as my Father has sent me, even so send I you.


Acts 2:24-32 Whom God has raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that he should be held of it...

Acts 3:15 And killed the Prince of life, whom God has raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses.

Romans 4:24,25 But for us also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead...

Romans 10:9 That if you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead...

Romans 14:9 For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.

Ephesians 1:19,20 And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power...

Hebrews 13:20 Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep...

1 Peter 1:21 Who by him do believe in God, that raised him up from the dead, and gave him glory; that your faith and hope might be in God.

Revelation 1:5,18 And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth...

Revelation 2:8 And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things said the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;

Cross References
Acts 2:24
God raised him up, loosing the pangs of death, because it was not possible for him to be held by it.

Acts 2:32
This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses.

Acts 9:15
But the Lord said to him, "Go, for he is a chosen instrument of mine to carry my name before the Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel.

2 Corinthians 1:1
Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, To the church of God that is at Corinth, with all the saints who are in the whole of Achaia:

Galatians 1:11
For I would have you know, brothers, that the gospel that was preached by me is not man's gospel.

Galatians 1:12
For I did not receive it from any man, nor was I taught it, but I received it through a revelation of Jesus Christ.

Galatians 1:15
But when he who had set me apart before I was born, and who called me by his grace,

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