Jeremiah 49:4
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Why do you boast of your valleys, O faithless daughter, who trusted in her treasures, saying, ‘Who will come against me?’

King James Bible
Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures, saying, Who shall come unto me?

American Standard Version
Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures,'saying , Who shall come unto me?

Douay-Rheims Bible
Why gloriest thou in the valleys? thy valley hath flowed away, O delicate daughter, that hast trusted in thy treasures, and hast said: Who shall come to me?

English Revised Version
Wherefore gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures, saying, Who shall come unto me?

Webster's Bible Translation
Why gloriest thou in the valleys, thy flowing valley, O backsliding daughter? that trusted in her treasures, saying, Who shall come to me?

Jeremiah 49:4 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Conclusion. - Jeremiah 48:45. "Under the shadow of Heshbon stand fugitives, powerless; for a fire goes out from Heshbon, and a flame from Sihon, and devours the region of Moab, and the crown of the head of the sons of tumult. Jeremiah 48:46. Woe unto thee, Moab! the people of Chemosh are perished! for thy sons are taken away into captivity, and thy daughters into captivity. Jeremiah 48:47. Yet will I turn the captivity of Moab at the end of the days, saith Jahveh. Thus far is the judgment of Moab."

From Heshbon issued the resolution to annihilate Moab (Jeremiah 48:2); to Heshbon the prophecy finally returns. "In the shadow of Heshbon stand fugitives, powerless' (מכּח, with מן privative), where, no doubt, they were seeking refuge; cf. Isaiah 30:2-3. The fugitives can only be Moabites. Here it is astonishing that they seek refuge in Heshbon, since the enemy comes from the north, and according to Jeremiah 48:2, it is in Heshbon that the resolution to destroy Moab was formed; and judging from Jeremiah 49:3, that city was then in the hands of the Ammonites. Hence Hitzig and Graf miss the connection. Hitzig thinks that the whole clause was inserted by a glosser, who imagined the town belonged to Moab, perhaps allowing himself to be misled in this by Numbers 21:27, "Come to Heshbon." Graf, on the other hand, is of opinion that the fugitives are seeking the protection of the Ammonites in Heshbon, but do not find it: hence he would take the כּי which follows in the adversative sense of "however" or "rather;" but this is against the use of the word, and cannot be allowed. The tenor of the words, "Fugitives stand under the shadow of Heshbon," does not require us to assume that people had fled to Heshbon out of the whole of Moab. Let us rather think of fugitives from the environs of Heshbon, who seek refuge in this fortified town, from the enemy advancing from the north, but who find themselves disappointed in their expectation, because from this city there bursts forth the fire of war which destroys Moab. The thought merely serves the purpose of attaching to it the utterances which follow regarding Moab; but from Jeremiah 48:43 and Jeremiah 48:44 alone, it is evident that escape will be impossible. In proof of this he mentions the flight to Heshbon, that he may have an opportunity of introducing a portion of the old triumphal songs of the Mosaic age, with which he wished to conclude his prophecy, Jeremiah 48:45 and Jeremiah 48:46. The fugitives stand powerless, i.e., exhausted and unable to flee any further, while Heshbon affords them no refuge. For there bursts forth from it the fire that is to destroy the whole of Moab. The words from "for a fire," etc., on to the end of Jeremiah 48:46, are a free imitation of some strophes out of an ancient song, in which poets of the Mosaic period celebrated the victory of Israel over Sihon the king of the Amorites, who had conquered the greater portion of Moab; but with this here is interwoven a passage from the utterances of Balaam the seer, regarding the fall of Moab, found in Numbers 24:17, viz., from ותּאכל to בּני שׁאון. These insertions are made for the purpose of showing that, through this judgment which is now coming upon Moab, not only those ancient sayings, but also the prophecy of Balaam, will find their full accomplishment. Just as in the time of Moses, so now also there again proceeds from Heshbon the fire of war which will consume Moab. The words, "for a fire has gone out from Heshbon," are a verbatim repetition of what we find in Numbers 21:28, with the single exception that אשׁ is here, as in Psalm 104:4, construed as masculine, and thus takes יצא instead of יצאה; but this change, of course, does not affect the meaning of the words. The next clause runs, in Numbers, l.c., להבה מקּרית סיחון, but here ולהבה מבּין; this change into מבּין is difficult to account for, so that J. D. Michaelis and Ewald would alter it into מבּית.

There is no need for refuting the assumption of Raschi and Ngelsbach, that Sihon stands for the city of Sihon; or the fancy of Morus and Hitzig, that an old glosser imagined Sihon was a town instead of a king. When we consider that the burning of Heshbon by the Israelites, celebrated in that ancient song, was brought on by Sihon the Amorite king, since the Israelites were not to make war on Moab, and only fought against Sihon, who had made Heshbon his residence, there can be no doubt that Jeremiah purposely changed מקּרית into מבּין סיחון, in order to show that Sihon was the originator of the fire which consumed Heshbon. By this latter expression Jeremiah seeks to intimate that, in Nebuchadnezzar and the Chaldean army, there will arise against the Moabites another Sihon, from whose legions will burst forth the flame that is to consume Moab. מבּין, "from between," is to be explained on the ground that Sion is not viewed as a single individual, but as the leader of martial hosts. This fire will "devour the region of Moab, and the crown of the head of the sons of tumult." These words have been taken by Jeremiah from Balaam's utterance regarding Moab, Numbers 24:17, and embodied in his address after some transformation. What Balaam announces regarding the ruler (Star and Sceptre) that is to arise out of Israel, viz., "he shall smite the region of Moab, and dash in pieces the sons of tumult," Jeremiah has transferred to the fire: accordingly, he has changed וּמחץ into ותּאכל, and וקרקר into וקדקד. Several commentators understand פאה as signifying the margin of the beard (Leviticus 19:27; Leviticus 21:5); but the mention of the crown of the head in the parallel member does not require this meaning, for פאה does not signify the corner of the beard, except when found in combination with ראשׁ or זקן. The singeing of the margin of the beard seems, in connection with the burning of the crown, too paltry and insignificant. As in the fundamental passage פּאתי signify the sides of Moab, so here פאה is the side of the body, and קדקד the head. בּני שׁאון, homines tumultuosi, are the Moabites with their imperious disposition; cf. Jeremiah 48:29.

Jeremiah 49:4 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

gloriest

Jeremiah 9:23 Thus said the LORD, Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his might...

Isaiah 28:1-4 Woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of Ephraim, whose glorious beauty is a fading flower...

Isaiah 47:7,8 And you said, I shall be a lady for ever: so that you did not lay these things to your heart...

Revelation 18:7 How much she has glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she said in her heart...

thy flowing valley. or, they valley floweth away.
O backsliding

Jeremiah 3:14 Turn, O backsliding children, said the LORD; for I am married to you: and I will take you one of a city, and two of a family...

Jeremiah 7:24 But they listened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked in the counsels and in the imagination of their evil heart, and went backward...

Hosea 4:16 For Israel slides back as a backsliding heifer: now the LORD will feed them as a lamb in a large place.

trusted

Jeremiah 48:7 For because you have trusted in your works and in your treasures, you shall also be taken...

Psalm 49:6 They that trust in their wealth, and boast themselves in the multitude of their riches;

Psalm 52:7 See, this is the man that made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches...

Psalm 62:10 Trust not in oppression, and become not vain in robbery: if riches increase, set not your heart on them.

Proverbs 10:15 The rich man's wealth is his strong city: the destruction of the poor is their poverty.

Ezekiel 28:4-7 With your wisdom and with your understanding you have gotten you riches, and have gotten gold and silver into your treasures...

1 Timothy 6:17 Charge them that are rich in this world, that they be not high minded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God...

Who

Jeremiah 49:16 Your terribleness has deceived you, and the pride of your heart, O you that dwell in the clefts of the rock...

Jeremiah 21:13 Behold, I am against you, O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain, said the LORD; which say, Who shall come down against us?...

Cross References
1 Timothy 6:17
As for the rich in this present age, charge them not to be haughty, nor to set their hopes on the uncertainty of riches, but on God, who richly provides us with everything to enjoy.

Psalm 62:10
Put no trust in extortion; set no vain hopes on robbery; if riches increase, set not your heart on them.

Jeremiah 9:23
Thus says the LORD: "Let not the wise man boast in his wisdom, let not the mighty man boast in his might, let not the rich man boast in his riches,

Jeremiah 21:13
"Behold, I am against you, O inhabitant of the valley, O rock of the plain, declares the LORD; you who say, 'Who shall come down against us, or who shall enter our habitations?'

Jeremiah 31:22
How long will you waver, O faithless daughter? For the LORD has created a new thing on the earth: a woman encircles a man."

Ezekiel 28:4
by your wisdom and your understanding you have made wealth for yourself, and have gathered gold and silver into your treasuries;

Ezekiel 28:5
by your great wisdom in your trade you have increased your wealth, and your heart has become proud in your wealth--

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