Job 24:13
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
“There are those who rebel against the light, who are not acquainted with its ways, and do not stay in its paths.

King James Bible
They are of those that rebel against the light; they know not the ways thereof, nor abide in the paths thereof.

American Standard Version
These are of them that rebel against the light; They know not the ways thereof, Nor abide in the paths thereof.

Douay-Rheims Bible
They have been rebellious to the light, they have not known his ways, neither have they returned by his paths.

English Revised Version
These are of them that rebel against the light; they know not the ways thereof, nor abide in the paths thereof.

Webster's Bible Translation
They are of those that rebel against the light; they know not its ways, nor abide in its paths.

Job 24:13 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

5 Behold, as wild asses in the desert,

They go forth in their work seeking for prey,

The steppe is food to them for the children.

6 In the field they reap the fodder for his cattle,

And they glean the vineyard of the evil-doer.

7 They pass the night in nakedness without a garment,

And have no covering in the cold.

8 They are wet with the torrents of rain upon the mountains,

And they hug the rocks for want of shelter.

The poet could only draw such a picture as this, after having himself seen the home of his hero, and the calamitous fate of such as were driven forth from their original abodes to live a vagrant, poverty-stricken gipsy life. By Job 24:5, one is reminded of Psalm 104:21-23, especially since in Job 24:11 of this Psalm the פּראים, onagri (Kulans), are mentioned, - those beautiful animals

(Note: Layard, New Discoveries, p. 270, describes these wild asses' colts. The Arabic name is like the Hebrew, el-ferâ, or also himâr el-wahsh, i.e., wild ass, as we have translated, whose home is on the steppe. For fuller particulars, vid., Wetzstein's note on Job 39:5.)

which, while young, as difficult to be broken in, and when grown up are difficult to be caught; which in their love of freedom are an image of the Beduin, Genesis 16:12; their untractableness an image of that which cannot be bound, Job 11:12; and from their roaming about in herds in waste regions, are here an image of a gregarious, vagrant, and freebooter kind of life. The old expositors, as also Rosenm., Umbr., Arnh., and Vaih., are mistaken in thinking that aliud hominum sceleratorum genus is described in Job 24:5. Ewald and Hirz. were the first to perceive that Job 24:5 is the further development of Job 24:4, and that here, as in Job 30:1, those who are driven back into the wastes and caves, and a remnant of the ejected and oppressed aborigines who drag out a miserable existence, are described.

The accentuation rightly connects פראים במדבר; by the omission of the Caph similit., as e.g., Isaiah 51:12, the comparison (like a wild ass) becomes an equalization (as a wild ass). The perf. יצאוּ is a general uncoloured expression of that which is usual: they go forth בפעלם, in their work (not: to their work, as the Psalmist, in Psalm 104:23, expresses himself, exchanging ב for ל). משׁחרי לטּרף, searching after prey, i.e., to satisfy their hunger (Psalm 104:21), from טרף, in the primary signification decerpere (vid., Hupfeld on Psalm 7:3), describes that which in general forms their daily occupation as they roam about; the constructivus is used here, without any proper genitive relation, as a form of connection, according to Ges. 116, 1. The idea of waylaying is not to be connected with the expression. Job describes those who are perishing in want and misery, not so much as those who themselves are guilty of evil practices, as those who have been brought down to poverty by the wrongdoing of others. As is implied in משׁחרי (comp. the morning Psalm 63:2; Isaiah 26:9), Job describes their going forth in the early morning; the children (נערים, as Job 1:19; Job 29:5) are those who first feel the pangs of hunger. לו refers individually to the father in the company: the steppe (with its scant supply of roots and herbs) is to him food for the children; he snatches it from it, it must furnish it for him. The idea is not: for himself and his family (Hirz., Hahn, and others); for v. 6, which has been much misunderstood, describes how they, particularly the adults, obtain their necessary subsistence. There is no MS authority for reading בּלי־לו instead of בּלילו; the translation "what is not to him" (lxx, Targ., and partially also the Syriac version) is therefore to be rejected. Raschi correctly interprets יבולו as a general explanation, and Ralbag תבואתו: it is, as in Job 6:5, mixed fodder for cattle, farrago, consisting of oats or barley sown among vetches and beans, that is intended. The meaning is not, however, as most expositors explain it, that they seek to satisfy their hunger with food for cattle grown in the fields of the rich evil-doer; for קצר does not signify to sweep together, but to reap in an orderly manner; and if they meant to steal, why did they not seize the better portion of the produce? It is correct to take the suff. as referring to the רשׁע which is mentioned in the next clause, but it is not to be understood that they plunder his fields per nefas; on the contrary, that he hires them to cut the fodder for his cattle, but does not like to entrust the reaping of the better kinds of corn to them. It is impracticable to press the Hiph. יקצירו of the Chethib to favour this rendering; on the contrary, הקציר stands to קצר in like (not causative) signification as הנחה to נחה (vid., on Job 31:18). In like manner, Job 24:6 is to be understood of hired labour. The rich man prudently hesitates to employ these poor people as vintagers; but he makes use of their labour (whilst his own men are fully employed at the wine-vats) to gather the straggling grapes which ripen late, and were therefore left at the vintage season. the older expositors are reminded of לקשׁ, late hay, and explain ילקּשׁוּ as denom. by יכרתו לקשׁו (Aben-Ezra, Immanuel, and others) or יאכלו לקשׁו (Parchon); but how unnatural to think of the second mowing, or even of eating the after-growth of grass, where the vineyard is the subject referred to! On the contrary, לקּשׁ signifies, as it were, serotinare, i.e., serotinos fructus colligere (Rosenm.):

(Note: In the idiom of Hauran, לקשׂ, fut. i, signifies to be late, to come late; in Piel, to delay, e.g., the evening meal, return, etc.; in Hithpa. telaqqas, to arrive too late. Hence laqı̂s לקישׂ and loqsı̂ לקשׂי, delayed, of any matter, e.g., לקישׁ and זרע לקשׂי, late seed ( equals לקשׁ, Amos 7:1, in connection with which the late rain in April, which often fails, is reckoned on), ולד לקשׂי, a child born late (i.e., in old age); bakı̂r בכיר and bekrı̂ בכרי are the opposites in every signification. - Wetzst.)

continued...

Job 24:13 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

rebel

Luke 12:47,48 And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will...

John 3:19,20 And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light...

John 9:39-41 And Jesus said, For judgment I am come into this world, that they which see not might see; and that they which see might be made blind...

John 15:22-24 If I had not come and spoken to them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloak for their sin...

Romans 1:32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same...

Romans 2:17-24 Behold, you are called a Jew, and rest in the law, and make your boast of God...

James 4:17 Therefore to him that knows to do good, and does it not, to him it is sin.

they know

Proverbs 4:19 The way of the wicked is as darkness: they know not at what they stumble.

John 12:35,40 Then Jesus said to them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while you have the light, lest darkness come on you...

Romans 3:11-17 There is none that understands, there is none that seeks after God...

2 Thessalonians 2:10-12 And with all delusion of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth...

nor abide

Job 23:11,12 My foot has held his steps, his way have I kept, and not declined...

John 8:31,44 Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If you continue in my word, then are you my disciples indeed...

John 15:6 If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire...

2 Peter 2:20-22 For if after they have escaped the pollutions of the world through the knowledge of the Lord and Savior Jesus Christ...

1 John 2:19 They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us...

Jude 1:6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation...

Cross References
Job 5:14
They meet with darkness in the daytime and grope at noonday as in the night.

Job 24:12
From out of the city the dying groan, and the soul of the wounded cries for help; yet God charges no one with wrong.

Job 24:14
The murderer rises before it is light, that he may kill the poor and needy, and in the night he is like a thief.

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