Nahum 2:13
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Behold, I am against you, declares the LORD of hosts, and I will burn your chariots in smoke, and the sword shall devour your young lions. I will cut off your prey from the earth, and the voice of your messengers shall no longer be heard.

King James Bible
Behold, I am against thee, saith the LORD of hosts, and I will burn her chariots in the smoke, and the sword shall devour thy young lions: and I will cut off thy prey from the earth, and the voice of thy messengers shall no more be heard.

American Standard Version
Behold, I am against thee, saith Jehovah of hosts, and I will burn her chariots in the smoke, and the sword shall devour thy young lions; and I will cut off thy prey from the earth, and the voice of thy messengers shall no more be heard.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Behold I come against thee, saith the Lord of hosts, and I will burn thy chariots even to smoke, and the sword shall devour thy young lions: and I will cut off thy prey out of the land, and the voice of thy messengers shall be heard no more.

English Revised Version
Behold, I am against thee, saith the LORD of hosts, and I will burn her chariots in the smoke, and the sword shall devour thy young lions: and I will cut off thy prey from the earth, and the voice of thy messengers shall no more be heard.

Webster's Bible Translation
Behold, I am against thee, saith the LORD of hosts, and I will burn her chariots in the smoke, and the sword shall devour thy young lions: and I will cut off thy prey from the earth, and the voice of thy messengers shall no more be heard.

Nahum 2:13 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The Ninevites believed in God, since they hearkened to the preaching of the prophet sent to them by God, and humbled themselves before God with repentance. They proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth (penitential garments: see at Joel 1:13-14; 1 Kings 21:27, etc.), "from their great one even to their small one," i.e., both old and young, all without exception. Even the king, when the matter (had-dâbhâr) came to his knowledge, i.e., when he was informed of Jonah's coming, and of his threatening prediction, descended from his throne, laid aside his royal robe ('addereth, see at Joshua 7:21), wrapt himself in a sackcloth, and sat down in ashes, as a sign of the deepest mourning (compare Job 2:8), and by a royal edict appointed a general fast for man and beast. ויּזעק, he caused to be proclaimed. ויּאמר, and said, viz., through his heralds. מפּעם הם, ex decreto, by command of the king and his great men, i.e., his ministers (פעם equals פעם, Daniel 3:10, Daniel 3:29, a technical term for the edicts of the Assyrian and Babylonian kings). "Man and beast (viz., oxen and sheep) are to taste nothing; they are not to pasture (the cattle are not to be driven to the pasture), and are to drink no water." אל, for which we should expect לא, may be explained from the fact that the command is communicated directly. Moreover, man and beast are to be covered with mourning clothes, and cry to God bechozqâh, i.e., strongly, mightily, and to turn every one from his evil ways: so "will God perhaps (מי יודע) turn and repent (yâshūbh venicham, as in Joel 2:14), and desist from the fierceness of His anger (cf. Exodus 32:12), that we perish not." This verse (Jonah 3:9) also belongs to the king's edict. The powerful impression made upon the Ninevites by Jonah's preaching, so that the whole city repented in sackcloth and ashes, is quite intelligible, if we simply bear in mind the great susceptibility of Oriental races to emotion, the awe of one Supreme Being which is peculiar to all the heathen religions of Asia, and the great esteem in which soothsaying and oracles were held in Assyria from the very earliest times (vid., Cicero, de divinat. i. 1); and if we also take into calculation the circumstance that the appearance of a foreigner, who, without any conceivable personal interest, and with the most fearless boldness, disclosed to the great royal city its godless ways, and announced its destruction within a very short period with the confidence so characteristic of the God-sent prophets, could not fail to make a powerful impression upon the minds of the people, which would be all the stronger if the report of the miraculous working of the prophets of Israel had penetrated to Nineveh. There is just as little to surprise us in the circumstance that the signs of mourning among the Ninevites resemble in most respects the forms of penitential mourning current among the Israelites, since these outward signs of mourning are for the most part the common human expressions of deep sorrow of heart, and are found in the same or similar forms among all the nations of antiquity (see the numerous proofs of this which are collected in Winer's Real-wrterbuch, art. Trauer; and in Herzog's Cyclopaedia). Ezekiel (Ezekiel 26:16) depicts the mourning of the Tyrian princes over the ruin of their capital in just the same manner in which that of the king of Nineveh is described here in Jonah 3:6, except that, instead of sackcloth, he mentions trembling as that with which they wrap themselves round. The garment of haircloth (saq) worn as mourning costume reaches as far back as the patriarchal age (cf. Genesis 37:34; Job 16:15). Even the one feature which is peculiar to the mourning of Nineveh - namely, that the cattle also have to take part in the mourning - is attested by Herodotus (9:24) as an Asiatic custom.

(Note: Herodotus relates that the Persians, when mourning for their general, Masistios, who had fallen in the battle at Platea, shaved off the hair from their horses, and adds, "Thus did the barbarians, in their way, mourn for the deceased Masistios." Plutarch relates the same thing (Aristid. 14 fin. Compare Brissonius, de regno Pers. princip. ii. p. 206; and Periz. ad Aeliani Var. hist. vii. 8). The objection made to this by Hitzig - namely, that the mourning of the cattle in our book is not analogous to the case recorded by Herodotus, because the former was an expression of repentance - has no force whatever, for the simple reason that in all nations the outward signs of penitential mourning are the same as those of mourning for the dead.)

This custom originated in the idea that there is a biotic rapport between man and the larger domestic animals, such as oxen, sheep, and goats, which are his living property. It is only to these animals that there is any reference here, and not to "horses, asses, and camels, which were decorated at other times with costly coverings," as Marck, Rosenmller, and others erroneously assume. Moreover, this was not done "with the intention of impelling the men to shed hotter tears through the lowing and groaning of the cattle" (Theodoret); or "to set before them as in a mirror, through the sufferings of the innocent brutes, their own great guilt" (Chald.); but it was a manifestation of the thought, that just as the animals which live with man are drawn into fellowship with his sin, so their sufferings might also help to appease the wrath of God. And although this thought might not be free from superstition, there lay at the foundation of it this deep truth, that the irrational creature is made subject to vanity on account of man's sins, and sighs along with man for liberation from the bondage of corruption (Romans 8:19.). We cannot therefore take the words "cry mightily unto God" as referring only to the men, as many commentators have done, in opposition to the context; but must regard "man and beast" as the subject of this clause also, since the thought that even the beasts cry to or call upon God in distress has its scriptural warrant in Joel 1:20.

Nahum 2:13 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I am.

Nahum 3:5 Behold, I am against you, said the LORD of hosts; and I will discover your skirts on your face...

Jeremiah 21:13 Behold, I am against you, O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the plain, said the LORD; which say, Who shall come down against us?...

Jeremiah 50:31 Behold, I am against you, O you most proud, said the Lord GOD of hosts: for your day is come, the time that I will visit you.

Jeremiah 51:25 Behold, I am against you, O destroying mountain, said the LORD, which destroy all the earth: and I will stretch out my hand on you...

Ezekiel 5:8 Therefore thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I, even I, am against you...

Ezekiel 26:3 Therefore thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against you, O Tyrus, and will cause many nations to come up against you...

Ezekiel 28:22 And say, Thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against you, O Zidon; and I will be glorified in the middle of you...

Ezekiel 29:3,10 Speak, and say, Thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against you, Pharaoh king of Egypt...

Ezekiel 35:3 And say to it, Thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, O mount Seir, I am against you, and I will stretch out my hand against you...

Ezekiel 38:3 And say, Thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against you, O Gog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal:

Ezekiel 39:1 Therefore, you son of man, prophesy against Gog, and say, Thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against you...

I will burn.

Joshua 11:9 And Joshua did to them as the LORD bade him: he hamstrung their horses, and burnt their chariots with fire.

2 Kings 19:23 By your messengers you have reproached the LORD, and have said...

Psalm 46:9 He makes wars to cease to the end of the earth; he breaks the bow, and cuts the spear in sunder; he burns the chariot in the fire.

and the sword.

Isaiah 31:8,9 Then shall the Assyrian fall with the sword, not of a mighty man; and the sword, not of a mean man, shall devour him...

Isaiah 37:36-38 Then the angel of the LORD went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred and fourscore and five thousand...

I will cut.

Nahum 3:1,12 Woe to the bloody city! it is all full of lies and robbery; the prey departs not...

Isaiah 33:1-4 Woe to you that spoil, and you were not spoiled; and deal treacherously...

Isaiah 49:24,25 Shall the prey be taken from the mighty, or the lawful captive delivered...

the voice.

2 Kings 18:17,19,27-35 And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rabsaris and Rabshakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great host against Jerusalem...

2 Kings 19:9,23 And when he heard say of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight against you: he sent messengers again to Hezekiah...

2 Chronicles 32:9-16,19 After this did Sennacherib king of Assyria send his servants to Jerusalem, (but he himself laid siege against Lachish...

Cross References
Joshua 11:6
And the LORD said to Joshua, "Do not be afraid of them, for tomorrow at this time I will give over all of them, slain, to Israel. You shall hamstring their horses and burn their chariots with fire."

Joshua 11:9
And Joshua did to them just as the LORD said to him: he hamstrung their horses and burned their chariots with fire.

Psalm 46:9
He makes wars cease to the end of the earth; he breaks the bow and shatters the spear; he burns the chariots with fire.

Isaiah 49:24
Can the prey be taken from the mighty, or the captives of a tyrant be rescued?

Isaiah 49:25
For thus says the LORD: "Even the captives of the mighty shall be taken, and the prey of the tyrant be rescued, for I will contend with those who contend with you, and I will save your children.

Jeremiah 21:13
"Behold, I am against you, O inhabitant of the valley, O rock of the plain, declares the LORD; you who say, 'Who shall come down against us, or who shall enter our habitations?'

Jeremiah 46:14
"Declare in Egypt, and proclaim in Migdol; proclaim in Memphis and Tahpanhes; say, 'Stand ready and be prepared, for the sword shall devour around you.'

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