Numbers 35:20
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
And if he pushed him out of hatred or hurled something at him, lying in wait, so that he died,

King James Bible
But if he thrust him of hatred, or hurl at him by laying of wait, that he die;

American Standard Version
And if he thrust him of hatred, or hurled at him, lying in wait, so that he died,

Douay-Rheims Bible
If through hatred any one push a man, or fling any thing- at him with ill design:

English Revised Version
And if he thrust him of hatred, or hurled at him, lying in wait, so that he died;

Webster's Bible Translation
But if he shall thrust him of hatred, or hurl at him by laying in wait, that he die.

Numbers 35:20 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

These towns were to serve for a refuge from the avenger of blood, that the manslayer might not die before he had taken his trial in the presence of the congregation. The number of cities was fixed at six, three on the other side of the Jordan, and three on this side in the land of Canaan, to which both the children of Israel, and also the foreigners and settlers who were dwelling among them, might flee. In Deuteronomy 19:2., Moses advises the congregation to prepare (הכין) the way to these cities, and to divide the territory of the land which Jehovah would give them into three parts (שׁלּשׁ), i.e., to set apart a free city in every third of the land, that every manslayer might flee thither, i.e., might be able to reach the free city without being detained by length of distance or badness of road, lest, as is added in Deuteronomy 19:6, the avenger of blood pursue the slayer while his heart is hot (יחם, imperf. Kal of חמם), and overtake him because the way is long, and slay him (נפשׁ הכּה, as in Genesis 37:21), whereas he was not worthy of death (i.e., there was no just ground for putting him to death), "because he had not done it out of hatred." The three cities of refuge on the other side were selected by Moses himself (Deuteronomy 4:41-43); the three in Canaan were not appointed till the land was distributed among the nine tribes and a half (Joshua 20:7). Levitical or priests' towns were selected for all six, not only because it was to the priests and Levites that they would first of all look for an administration of justice (Schultz on Deuteronomy 19:3), but also on the ground that these cities were the property of Jehovah, in a higher sense than the rest of the land, and for this reason answered the idea of cities of refuge, where the manslayer, when once received, was placed under the protection of divine grace, better than any other places possibly could.

The establishment of cities of refuge presupposed the custom and right of revenge. The custom itself goes back to the very earliest times of the human race (Genesis 4:15, Genesis 4:24; Genesis 27:45); it prevailed among the Israelites, as well as the other nations of antiquity, and still continues among the Arabs in unlimited force (cf. Niebuhr, Arab. pp. 32ff.; Burckhardt, Beduinen, 119, 251ff.). "Revenge of blood prevailed almost everywhere, so long as there was no national life generated, or it was still in the first stages of its development; and consequently the expiation of any personal violation of justice was left to private revenge, and more especially to family zeal" (Oehler in Herzog's B. Cycl., where the proofs may be seen). The warrant for this was the principle of retribution, the jus talionis, which lay at the foundation of the divine order of the world in general, and the Mosaic law in particular, and which was sanctioned by God, so far as murder was concerned, even in the time of Noah, by the command, "Whoso sheddeth man's blood," etc. (Genesis 9:5-6). This warrant, however, or rather obligation to avenge murder, was subordinated to the essential principle of the theocracy, under the Mosaic law. Whilst God Himself would avenge the blood that was shed, not only upon men, but upon animals also (Genesis 9:5), and commanded blood-revenge, He withdrew the execution of it from subjective caprice, and restricted it to cases of premeditated slaying or murder, by appointing cities of refuge, which were to protect the manslayer from the avenger, until he took his trial before the congregation. גּאל, redeemer, is "that particular relative whose special duty it was to restore the violated family integrity, who had to redeem not only landed property that had been alienated from the family (Leviticus 25:25.), or a member of the family that had fallen into slavery (Leviticus 25:47.), but also the blood that had been taken away from the family by murder" (Oehler). In the latter respect he was called הדּם גּאל, (Numbers 35:19, Numbers 35:21, Numbers 35:24.; Deuteronomy 19:6, Deuteronomy 19:12). From 2 Samuel 14:7, we may see that it was the duty of the whole family to take care that blood-revenge was carried out. The performance of the duty itself, however, was probably regulated by the closeness of the relationship, and corresponded to the duty of redeeming from bondage (Leviticus 25:49), and to the right of inheritance (Numbers 27:8.). What standing before the congregation was to consist of, is defined more fully in what follows (Numbers 35:24, Numbers 35:25). If we compare with this Joshua 20:4., the manslayer, who fled from the avenger of blood into a free city, was to stand before the gates of the city, and state his cause before the elders. They were then to receive him into the city, and give him a place that he might dwell among them, and were not to deliver him up to the avenger of blood till he had stood before the congregation for judgment. Consequently, if the slayer of a man presented himself with the request to be received, the elders of the free city had to make a provisional inquiry into his case, to decide whether they should grant him protection in the city; and then if the avenger of blood appeared, they were not to deliver up the person whom they had received, but to hand him over, on the charge of the avenger of blood, to the congregation to whom he belonged, or among whom the act had taken place, that they might investigate the case, and judge whether the deed itself was wilful or accidental.

Numbers 35:20 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

if he thrust

Genesis 4:5,8 But to Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell...

2 Samuel 3:27 And when Abner was returned to Hebron, Joab took him aside in the gate to speak with him quietly...

2 Samuel 13:22,28,29 And Absalom spoke to his brother Amnon neither good nor bad: for Absalom hated Amnon, because he had forced his sister Tamar...

2 Samuel 20:10 But Amasa took no heed to the sword that was in Joab's hand: so he smote him therewith in the fifth rib...

1 Kings 2:5,6,31-33 Moreover you know also what Joab the son of Zeruiah did to me, and what he did to the two captains of the hosts of Israel...

Proverbs 26:24 He that hates dissembles with his lips, and lays up deceit within him;

Proverbs 28:17 A man that does violence to the blood of any person shall flee to the pit; let no man stay him.

Luke 4:29 And rose up, and thrust him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill where on their city was built...

by laying

Exodus 21:14 But if a man come presumptuously on his neighbor, to slay him with guile; you shall take him from my altar, that he may die.

Deuteronomy 19:11 But if any man hate his neighbor, and lie in wait for him, and rise up against him, and smite him mortally that he die...

1 Samuel 18:10,11,25 And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came on Saul, and he prophesied in the middle of the house...

1 Samuel 19:9-12 And the evil spirit from the LORD was on Saul, as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand: and David played with his hand...

1 Samuel 20:1 And David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan, What have I done? what is my iniquity?...

1 Samuel 23:7-9 And it was told Saul that David was come to Keilah. And Saul said, God has delivered him into my hand; for he is shut in...

1 Samuel 24:11 Moreover, my father, see, yes, see the skirt of your robe in my hand: for in that I cut off the skirt of your robe, and killed you not...

Psalm 10:7-10 His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief and vanity...

Psalm 11:2 For, see, the wicked bend their bow, they make ready their arrow on the string, that they may privately shoot at the upright in heart.

Psalm 35:7,8 For without cause have they hid for me their net in a pit, which without cause they have dig for my soul...

Psalm 57:4-6 My soul is among lions: and I lie even among them that are set on fire, even the sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows...

Proverbs 1:18,19 And they lay wait for their own blood; they lurk privately for their own lives...

Mark 6:19,24-26 Therefore Herodias had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him; but she could not...

Acts 20:3 And there stayed three months. And when the Jews laid wait for him, as he was about to sail into Syria...

Acts 23:21 But do not you yield to them: for there lie in wait for him of them more than forty men, which have bound themselves with an oath...

Cross References
Genesis 4:8
Cain spoke to Abel his brother. And when they were in the field, Cain rose up against his brother Abel and killed him.

Exodus 21:14
But if a man willfully attacks another to kill him by cunning, you shall take him from my altar, that he may die.

Numbers 35:19
The avenger of blood shall himself put the murderer to death; when he meets him, he shall put him to death.

Numbers 35:21
or in enmity struck him down with his hand, so that he died, then he who struck the blow shall be put to death. He is a murderer. The avenger of blood shall put the murderer to death when he meets him.

Deuteronomy 19:11
"But if anyone hates his neighbor and lies in wait for him and attacks him and strikes him fatally so that he dies, and he flees into one of these cities,

2 Samuel 3:27
And when Abner returned to Hebron, Joab took him aside into the midst of the gate to speak with him privately, and there he struck him in the stomach, so that he died, for the blood of Asahel his brother.

2 Samuel 20:10
But Amasa did not observe the sword that was in Joab's hand. So Joab struck him with it in the stomach and spilled his entrails to the ground without striking a second blow, and he died. Then Joab and Abishai his brother pursued Sheba the son of Bichri.

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