Psalm 45:14
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
In many-colored robes she is led to the king, with her virgin companions following behind her.

King James Bible
She shall be brought unto the king in raiment of needlework: the virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto thee.

American Standard Version
She shall be led unto the king in broidered work: The virgins her companions that follow her Shall be brought unto thee.

Douay-Rheims Bible
clothed round about with varieties. After her shall virgins be brought to the king: her neighbours shall be brought to thee.

English Revised Version
She shall be led unto the king in broidered work: the virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto thee.

Webster's Bible Translation
She shall be brought to the king in raiment of needle-work: the virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought to thee.

Psalm 45:14 Parallel
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

(Heb.: 45:9-10) The song of that which is lovely here reaches the height towards which it aspires from the beginning. It has portrayed the lovely king as a man, as a hero, and as a divine ruler; now it describes him as a bridegroom on the day of his nuptials. The sequence of the thoughts and of the figures corresponds to the history of the future. When Babylon is fallen, and the hero riding upon a white horse, upon whom is inscribed the name "King of kings and Lord of lords," shall have smitten the hostile nations with the sword that goeth out of His mouth, there then follows the marriage of the Lamb, for which the way has been prepared by these avenging victories (Revelation 19:7.). It is this final ga'mos which the Psalm, as a song of the congregation, when the light was dawning upon the Old Testament church, sees by anticipation, and as it were goes forth to meet it, rejoicing to behold it afar off. The king's garments are so thoroughly scented with costly spices that they seem to be altogether woven out of them. And מנּי out of the ivory palaces enchant him. This מנּי has been taken mostly, according to Isaiah 59:18 (cf. also Isaiah 52:6), as a repetition of the מן: "out of ivory palaces, whence they enchant thee." But this repetition serves no special purpose. Although the apocopated plural in ı̂, instead of ı̂m, is controvertible in Biblical Hebrew (vid., on Psalm 22:17; 2 Samuel 22:44), still there is the venture that in this instance מנּי is equivalent to מנּים, the music of stringed instruments (Psalm 150:4); and if in connection with any Psalm at all, surely we may venture in connection with this Psalm, which in other respects has such an Aramaic or North-Palestinian colouring, to acknowledge this apocope, here perhaps chosen on account of the rhythm. In accordance with our historical rendering of the Psalm, by the ivory palaces are meant the magnificent residences of the king, who is the father of the bride. Out of the inner recesses of these halls, inlaid within with ivory and consequently resplendent with the most dazzling whiteness, the bridegroom going to fetch his bride, as he approaches and enters them, is met by the sounds of festive music: viewed in the light of the New Testament, it is that music of citherns or harps which the seer (Revelation 14:2) heard like the voice of many waters and of mighty thunder resounding from heaven. The Old Testament poet imagines to himself a royal citadel that in its earthly splendour far surpasses that of David and of Solomon. Thence issues forth the sound of festive music zealous, as it were, to bid its welcome to the exalted king.

Even the daughters of kings are among his precious ones. יקר is the name for that which is costly, and is highly prized and loved for its costliness (Proverbs 6:26). The form בּיקּרותיך resembles the form ליקּהת, Proverbs 30:17, in the appearance of the i and supplanting the Sheba mobile, and also in the Dag. dirimens in the ק (cf. עקּבי, Genesis 49:17; מקּדשׁ, Exodus 15:17).

(Note: It is the reading of Ben-Naphtali that has here, as an exception, become the receptus; whereas Ben-Asher reads בּיקּרותיך. Saadia, Rashi, Simson ha-Nakdan and others, who derive the word from בּקּר (to visit, wait on), follow the receptus, comparing משׁיסּה, Isaiah 42:24, in support of the form of writing. Also in ליקּהת, Proverbs 30:17; ויללת, Jeremiah 25:36; כּיתרון, Ecclesiastes 2:13, the otherwise rejected orthography of Ben-Naphtali (who pointed ויחלּוּ, Job 29:21, לישׂראל, ויתּן, and the like) is retained, as quite an exception, in the textus receptus. Vide S. D. Luzzatto, Prolegomeni, cxcix., and Grammatica della Lingua Ebraica, 193.)

Now, however, he has chosen for himself his own proper wife, who is here called by a name commonly used of Chaldaean and Persian queens, and, as it seems (cf. on Judges 5:30), a North-Palestinian name, שׁגל,

(Note: Bar-Ali says that in Babylonia Venus is called ודלפת שגל, vid., Lagarde, Gesammelte Abhandl. S. 17. Windischmann (Zoroastrische Studien, S. 161) erroneously compares ćagar (pronounced tshagar) as a name of one of the two wives of Zarathustra; but it happens that this is not the name of the wife who holds the first rank (Neo-Persic padishāh-zen), but of the second (ćakir-zen, bond-woman).)

instead of גּבירה. From the fact that, glittering with gold of Ophir, she has taken the place of honour at the right hand of the king (נצּבה, 3rd praet., not part.), it is evident that her relationship to the king is at this time just in the act of being completed. Who are those daughters of kings and who is this queen standing in closest relationship to the king? The former are the heathen nations converted to Christ, and the latter is the Israel which is remarried to God in Christ, after the fulness of the heathen is come in. It is only when Israel is won to Him, after the fulness of the heathen is come in (Romans 11:25), that the morning of the great day will dawn, which this Psalm as a song of the church celebrates. בּנות מלכים cannot certainly, like בּת־צר, be a personificative designation of heathen kingdoms, although שׁגל is the believing Israel conceived of as one person. It is actually kings' daughters as the representatives of their nations that are intended; and the relation of things is just the same here as in Isaiah 49:23, where, of the Israelitish church of the future, it is predicted that kings shall be its foster-fathers and their princesses its nursing-mothers.

Psalm 45:14 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge


Songs 1:4 Draw me, we will run after you: the king has brought me into his chambers: we will be glad and rejoice in you...

John 17:24 Father, I will that they also, whom you have given me, be with me where I am; that they may behold my glory, which you have given me...

2 Corinthians 11:2 For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband...


Exodus 28:39 And you shall embroider the coat of fine linen, and you shall make the turban of fine linen...

Judges 5:30 Have they not sped? have they not divided the prey; to every man a damsel or two; to Sisera a prey of divers colors...


Songs 1:3,5 Because of the smell of your good ointments your name is as ointment poured forth, therefore do the virgins love you...

Songs 2:7 I charge you, O you daughters of Jerusalem, by the roes, and by the hinds of the field, that you stir not up, nor awake my love...

Songs 5:8,9 I charge you, O daughters of Jerusalem, if you find my beloved, that you tell him, that I am sick of love...

Songs 6:1,8,13 Where is your beloved gone, O you fairest among women? where is your beloved turned aside? that we may seek him with you...

Songs 8:13 You that dwell in the gardens, the companions listen to your voice: cause me to hear it.

Revelation 14:1-4 And I looked, and, see, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with him an hundred forty and four thousand...

Cross References
Judges 5:30
Have they not found and divided the spoil?-- A womb or two for every man; spoil of dyed materials for Sisera, spoil of dyed materials embroidered, two pieces of dyed work embroidered for the neck as spoil?'

Psalm 45:9
daughters of kings are among your ladies of honor; at your right hand stands the queen in gold of Ophir.

Psalm 45:15
With joy and gladness they are led along as they enter the palace of the king.

Song of Solomon 1:3
your anointing oils are fragrant; your name is oil poured out; therefore virgins love you.

Song of Solomon 1:4
Draw me after you; let us run. The king has brought me into his chambers. Others We will exult and rejoice in you; we will extol your love more than wine; rightly do they love you.

Ezekiel 16:10
I clothed you also with embroidered cloth and shod you with fine leather. I wrapped you in fine linen and covered you with silk.

Ezekiel 16:13
Thus you were adorned with gold and silver, and your clothing was of fine linen and silk and embroidered cloth. You ate fine flour and honey and oil. You grew exceedingly beautiful and advanced to royalty.

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