Psalm 60:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
O God, you have rejected us, broken our defenses; you have been angry; oh, restore us.

King James Bible
To the chief Musician upon Shushaneduth, Michtam of David, to teach; when he strove with Aramnaharaim and with Aramzobah, when Joab returned, and smote of Edom in the valley of salt twelve thousand. O God, thou hast cast us off, thou hast scattered us, thou hast been displeased; O turn thyself to us again.

American Standard Version
O God thou hast cast us off, thou hast broken us down; Thou hast been angry; oh restore us again.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Unto the end, for them that shall be changed, for the inscription of a title, to David himself, for doctrine, when he set fire to Mesopotamia of Syria and Sobal and Joab returned and slew of Edom, in the vale of the saltpits, twelve thousand men. O God, thou hast cast us off, and hast destroyed us; thou hast been angry, and hast had mercy on us.

English Revised Version
For the Chief Musician; set to Shushan Eduth: Michtam of David, to teach: when he strove with Aram-naharaim and with Aram-zobah, and Joab returned, and smote of Edom in the Valley of Salt twelve thousand. O God, thou hast cast us off, thou hast broken us down; thou hast been angry; O restore us again.

Webster's Bible Translation
To the chief Musician upon Shushan-eduth, Michtam of David, to teach; when he strove with Aram-naharaim and with Aram-zobah, when Joab returned, and smote of Edom in the valley of salt twelve thousand. O God, thou hast cast us off, thou hast scattered us, thou hast been displeased; O turn thyself to us again.

Psalm 60:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

In this second half of the Psalm the cry of fear is hushed. Hope reigns, and anger burns more fiercely. The Ker says that Psalm 59:11 is to be read: אלהי חסדּי יקדּמני, my gracious God will anticipate me, - but with what? This question altogether disappears if we retain the Chethb and point אלהי הסדּו: my God will anticipate me with His mercy (cf. Psalm 21:4), i.e., will meet me bringing His mercy without any effort of mine. Even the old translators have felt that chcdw must belong to the verb as a second object. The lxx is perfectly correct in its rendering, ὁ Θεὸς μου τὸ ἔλεος αὐτοῦ προφθάσει με. The Ker has come into existence in looking to v. 18, according to which it seems as though אלהי הסדּי ought to be added to the refrain, Psalm 59:10 (cf. a similar instance in Psalm 42:6-7). But Psalm 59:11 would be stunted by doing this, and it accords with Biblical poetic usage that the refrain in v. 18 should be climactic in comparison with Psalm 59:10 (just as it also does not altogether harmonize in its first half); so that Olshausen's proposal to close Psalm 59:10 with אלהי חסדי and to begin Psalm 59:11 with חסדו (cf. Psalm 79:8) is only just to be put on record. The prayer "slay them not" does not contradict the prayer that follows for their destruction. The poet wishes that those who lie in wait for him, before they are totally swept away, may remain for a season before the eyes of this people as an example of punishment. In accordance with this, הניעמו, by a comparison of the Hiph. in Numbers 32:13, and of the Kal in Psalm 59:16, Psalm 109:10, is to be rendered: cause them to wander about (Targum, cf. Genesis Rabba, ch. 38 init., טלטלמו); and in connection with בחילך one is involuntarily reminded of Psalm 10:10, Psalm 10:14, and is tempted to read בחלך or בחלך: cause them to wander about in adversity or wretchedness, equals Arab. ‛umr ḥâlik, vita caliginosa h. e. misera), and more especially since בחילך occurs nowhere else instead of בּזרעך or בּימינך. But the Jod in בחילך is unfavourable to this supposition; and since the martial apostrophe of God by "our shield" follows, the choice of the word is explained by the consideration that the poet conceives of the power of God as an army (Joel 2:25), and perhaps thinks directly of the heavenly host (Joel 3:11), over which the Lord of Hosts holds command (Hitzig). By means of this He is first of all to cause them to go astray (נע ונד, Genesis 4:12), then utterly to cast them down (Psalm 56:8). The Lord (אדני) is to do this, as truly as He is Israel's shield against all the heathen and all pseudo-Israelites who have become as heathen. The first member of Psalm 59:13 is undoubtedly meant descriptively: "the sin of their mouth (the sin of the tongue) is the word of their lips" (with the dull-toned suffix mo, in the use of which Psalm 59 associates itself with the Psalms of the time of Saul, Psalm 56:1-13, Psalm 11:1-7, Psalm 17:1-15, 22, 35, Psalm 64:1-10). The combination ולילּכדוּ בגאונם, however, more readily suggests parallel passages like Proverbs 11:6 than Proverbs 6:2; and moreover the מן of the expression וּמאלה וּמכּחשׁ, which is without example in connection with ספּר, and, taken as expressing the motive (Hupfeld), ought to be joined with some designations of the disposition of mind, is best explained as an appended statement of the reason for which they are to be ensnared, so that consequently יספּרוּ (cf. Psalm 69:27; Psalm 64:6) is an attributive clause; nor is this contrary to the accentuation, if one admits the Munach to be a transformation of Mugrash. It is therefore to be rendered: "let them, then, be taken in their pride, and on account of the curse and deceit which they wilfully utter." If, by virtue of the righteousness of the Ruler of the world, their sin has thus become their fall, then, after they have been as it were a warning example to Israel, God is utterly to remove them out of the way, in order that they (it is unnecessary to suppose any change of subject), while perishing, may perceive that Elohim is Ruler in Jacob (בּ, used elsewhere of the object, e.g., Micah 5:1, is here used of the place of dominion), and as in Jacob, so from thence unto the ends of the earth (ל like על, Psalm 48:11) wields the sceptre. Just like the first group of the first part, this first group of the second part also closes with Sela.

The second group opens like the second group in the first part, but with this exception, that here we read וישׁבוּ, which loosely connects it with what precedes, whereas there it is ישׁוּבוּ. The poet's gaze is again turned towards his present straitened condition, and again the pack of dogs by which Saul is hunting him present themselves to his mind. המּה points towards an antithesis that follows, and which finds its expression in ואני. ויּלינוּ and לבּקר stand in direct contrast to one another, and in addition to this לערב has preceded. The reading of the lxx (Vulgate, Luther, [and authorized version]), καὶ γογγύσουσιν equals ויּלּינוּ or ויּלּנוּ, is thereby proved to be erroneous. But if ויּלינוּ is the correct reading, then it follows that we have to take Psalm 59:16 not as foretelling what will take place, but as describing that which is present; so that consequently the fut. consec. (as is frequently the case apart from any historical connection) is only a consecutive continuation of ינוּעוּן (for which the Ker has יניעוּן; the form that was required in Psalm 59:12, but is inadmissible here): they wander up and down (נוּע as in Psalm 109:10, cf. נוּד, Job 15:23) to eat (that is to say, seeking after food); and if they are not satisfied, they pass the night, i.e., remain, eager for food and expecting it, over night on the spot. This interpretation is the most natural, the simplest, and the one that harmonizes best not only with the text before us (the punctuation ישׂבּעוּ, not ישׂבּעוּ, gives the member of the clause the impress of being a protasis), but also with the situation. The poet describes the activity of his enemies, and that by completing or retouching the picture of their comparison to dogs: he himself is the food or prey for which they are so eager, and which they would not willingly allow to escape them, and which they nevertheless cannot get within their grasp. Their morbid desire remains unsatisfied: he, however, in the morning, is able to sing of the power of God, which protects him, and exultantly to praise God's loving-kindness, which satiates and satisfies him (Psalm 90:14); for in the day of fear, which to him is now past, God was his inaccessible stronghold, his unapproachable asylum. To this God, then, even further the play of his harp shall be directed (אזמּרה), just as was his waiting or hoping (אשׁמרה, Psalm 59:10).

Psalm 60:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

A.M.

2964 B.C.

1040 (Title.) Shu-shan-eduth. Probably a [hexachord] harp, or [lute]; for aiduth appears to be the same as the Arabic [] a harp or lute; concerning shushan,

Psalm 59:1 Deliver me from my enemies, O my God: defend me from them that rise up against me.

when he strove

2 Samuel 8:3,12,13 David smote also Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates...

2 Samuel 10:16 And Hadarezer sent, and brought out the Syrians that were beyond the river: and they came to Helam...

1 Chronicles 18:3,12,13 And David smote Hadarezer king of Zobah to Hamath, as he went to establish his dominion by the river Euphrates...

1 Chronicles 19:16-19 And when the Syrians saw that they were put to the worse before Israel, they sent messengers...

valley

2 Kings 14:7 He slew of Edom in the valley of salt ten thousand, and took Selah by war, and called the name of it Joktheel to this day.

2 Chronicles 25:11 And Amaziah strengthened himself, and led forth his people, and went to the valley of salt...

O God

Psalm 60:10 Will not you, O God, which had cast us off? and you, O God, which did not go out with our armies?

Psalm 44:9 But you have cast off, and put us to shame; and go not forth with our armies.

Psalm 74:1 O God, why have you cast us off for ever? why does your anger smoke against the sheep of your pasture?

Psalm 89:38 But you have cast off and abhorred, you have been wroth with your anointed.

Psalm 108:11 Will not you, O God, who have cast us off? and will not you, O God, go forth with our hosts?

1 Chronicles 28:9 And you, Solomon my son, know you the God of your father, and serve him with a perfect heart and with a willing mind...

Romans 11:1,2 I say then, Has God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin...

scattered [heb.] broken

Psalm 59:11 Slay them not, lest my people forget: scatter them by your power; and bring them down, O Lord our shield.

1 Samuel 4:10,11,17 And the Philistines fought, and Israel was smitten, and they fled every man into his tent: and there was a very great slaughter...

1 Samuel 13:6,7,11,19-22 When the men of Israel saw that they were in a strait, (for the people were distressed,) then the people did hide themselves in caves...

O turn

Psalm 79:9 Help us, O God of our salvation, for the glory of your name: and deliver us, and purge away our sins, for your name's sake.

Psalm 89:3,7,19 I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have sworn to David my servant...

Psalm 85:4 Turn us, O God of our salvation, and cause your anger toward us to cease.

Psalm 90:13 Return, O LORD, how long? and let it repent you concerning your servants.

Lamentations 3:31,32 For the LORD will not cast off for ever...

Zechariah 10:6 And I will strengthen the house of Judah, and I will save the house of Joseph, and I will bring them again to place them...

Cross References
2 Samuel 5:20
And David came to Baal-perazim, and David defeated them there. And he said, "The LORD has broken through my enemies before me like a breaking flood." Therefore the name of that place is called Baal-perazim.

2 Samuel 8:3
David also defeated Hadadezer the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to restore his power at the river Euphrates.

1 Chronicles 18:3
David also defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah-Hamath, as he went to set up his monument at the river Euphrates.

Psalm 44:9
But you have rejected us and disgraced us and have not gone out with our armies.

Psalm 60:10
Have you not rejected us, O God? You do not go forth, O God, with our armies.

Psalm 79:5
How long, O LORD? Will you be angry forever? Will your jealousy burn like fire?

Psalm 80:3
Restore us, O God; let your face shine, that we may be saved!

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Angry Aram Aram-Naharaim Aram-Zobah Broken Cast Chief Choirmaster Covenant David Displeased Edom Fought God Instruction Joab Killed Lily Michtam Miktam Musician Naharaim Poem Rejected Restore Salt Scattered Shushan Strove Teach Teaching Thousand Thyself Tune Turn Twelve Valley Zobah
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Angry Aram Aram-Naharaim Aram-Zobah Broken Cast Chief Choirmaster Covenant David Displeased Edom Fought God Instruction Joab Killed Lily Michtam Miktam Musician Naharaim Poem Rejected Restore Salt Scattered Shushan Strove Teach Teaching Thousand Thyself Tune Turn Twelve Valley Zobah
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