Psalm 78:58
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
For they provoked him to anger with their high places; they moved him to jealousy with their idols.

King James Bible
For they provoked him to anger with their high places, and moved him to jealousy with their graven images.

American Standard Version
For they provoked him to anger with their high places, And moved him to jealousy with their graven images.

Douay-Rheims Bible
They provoked him to anger on their hills: and moved him to jealousy with their graven things.

English Revised Version
For they provoked him to anger with their high places, and moved him to jealousy with their graven images.

Webster's Bible Translation
For they provoked him to anger with their high places, and moved him to jealousy with their graven images.

Psalm 78:58 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

When these plagues rose to the highest pitch, Israel became free, and removed, being led by its God, into the Land of Promise; but it continued still to behave there just as it had done in the desert. The poet in Psalm 78:49-51 brings the fifth Egyptian plague, the pestilence (Exodus 9:1-7), and the tenth and last, the smiting of the first-born (מכּת בּכרות), Exodus 11:1, together. Psalm 78:49 sounds like Job 20:23 (cf. below Psalm 78:64). מלאכי רעים are not wicked angels, against which view Hengstenberg refers to the scriptural thesis of Jacobus Ode in his work De Angelis, Deum ad puniendos malos homines mittere bonos angelos et ad castigandos pios usurpare malos, but angels that bring misfortune. The mode of construction belongs to the chapter of the genitival subordination of the adjective to the substantive, like אשׁת רע, Proverbs 6:24, cf. 1 Samuel 28:7; Numbers 5:18, Numbers 5:24; 1 Kings 10:15; Jeremiah 24:2, and the Arabic msjdu 'l-jâm‛, the mosque of the assembling one, i.e., the assembling (congregational) mosque, therefore: angels (not of the wicked ones equals wicked angels, which it might signify elsewhere, but) of the evil ones equals evil, misfortune-bringing angels (Ew. ֗287, a). The poet thus paraphrases the המּשׁחית that is collectively conceived in Exodus 12:13, Exodus 12:23; Hebrews 11:28. In Psalm 78:50 the anger is conceived of as a stream of fire, in Psalm 78:50 death as an executioner, and in 50c the pestilence as a foe. ראשׁית אונים (Genesis 49:3; Deuteronomy 21:17) is that which had sprung for the first time from manly vigour (plur. intensivus). Egypt is called חם as in Psalm 105 and Psalm 111:1-10 according to Genesis 10:6, and is also called by themselves in ancient Egyptian Kemi, Coptic Chmi, Kme (vid., Plutarch, De Iside et Osiride, ch. 33). When now these plagues which softened their Pharaoh went forth upon the Egyptians, God procured for His people a free departure, He guided flock-like (כּעדר like בּעדר, Jeremiah 31:24, with Dag. implicitum), i.e., as a shepherd, the flock of His people (the favourite figure of the Psalms of Asaph) through the desert, - He led them safely, removing all terrors out of the way and drowning their enemies in the Red Sea, to His holy territory, to the mountain which (זה) His right hand had acquired, or according to the accents (cf. supra, p. 104): to the mountain there (זה), which, etc. It is not Zion that is meant, but, as in the primary passage Exodus 15:16., in accordance with the parallelism (although this is not imperative) and the usage of the language, which according to Isaiah 11:9; Isaiah 57:13, is incontrovertible, the whole of the Holy Land with its mountains and valleys (cf. Deuteronomy 11:11). בּחבל נחלה is the poetical equivalent to בּנחלה, Numbers 34:2; Numbers 36:2, and frequently. The Beth is Beth essentiae (here in the same syntactical position as in Isaiah 48:10; Ezekiel 20:41, and also Job 22:24 surely): He made them (the heathen, viz., as in Joshua 23:4 their territories) fall to them (viz., as the expression implies, by lot, בגורל) as a line of inheritance, i.e., (as in Psalm 105:11) as a portion measured out as an inheritance. It is only in Psalm 78:56 (and not so early as Psalm 78:41) that the narration passes over to the apostate conduct of the children of the generation of the desert, that is to say, of the Israel of Canaan. Instead of עדוריו from עדוּת, the word here is עדוריו from עדה (a derivative of עוּד, not יעד). Since the apostasy did not gain ground until after the death of Joshua and Eleazar, it is the Israel of the period of the Judges that we are to think of here. קשׁת רמיּה, Psalm 78:57, is not: a bow of slackness, but: a bow of deceit; for the point of comparison, according to Hosea 7:16, is its missing the mark: a bow that discharges its arrow in a wrong direction, that makes no sure shot. The verb רמה signifies not only to allow to hang down slack (cogn. רפה), but also, according to a similar conception to spe dejicere, to disappoint, deny. In the very act of turning towards God, or at least being inclined towards Him by His tokens of power and loving-kindness, they turned (Jeremiah 2:21) like a vow that misses the mark and disappoints both aim and expectation. The expression in Psalm 78:58 is like Deuteronomy 32:16, Deuteronomy 32:21. שׁמע refers to their prayer to the Ba(a4lim (Judges 2:11). The word התעבּר, which occurs three times in this Psalm, is a word belonging to Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 3:26). Psalm 78:59 is purposely worded exactly like Psalm 78:21. The divine purpose of love spurned by the children just as by the fathers, was obliged in this case, as in the former, to pass over into angry provocation.

Psalm 78:58 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

their high

Leviticus 26:30 And I will destroy your high places, and cut down your images, and cast your carcasses on the carcasses of your idols...

Numbers 33:52 Then you shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you, and destroy all their pictures...

Deuteronomy 12:2,4 You shall utterly destroy all the places, wherein the nations which you shall possess served their gods, on the high mountains...

Ezekiel 20:28,29 For when I had brought them into the land, for the which I lifted up my hand to give it to them, then they saw every high hill...

moved

Psalm 79:5 How long, LORD? will you be angry for ever? shall your jealousy burn like fire?

Exodus 34:14 For you shall worship no other god: for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God:

Deuteronomy 32:16,17,21 They provoked him to jealousy with strange gods, with abominations provoked they him to anger...

Judges 2:12,20 And they forsook the LORD God of their fathers, which brought them out of the land of Egypt, and followed other gods...

Ezekiel 8:3-5 And he put forth the form of an hand, and took me by a lock of my head; and the spirit lifted me up between the earth and the heaven...

1 Corinthians 10:22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? are we stronger than he?

with

Psalm 97:7 Confounded be all they that serve graven images, that boast themselves of idols: worship him, all you gods.

Exodus 20:4,5 You shall not make to you any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath...

Deuteronomy 4:16-25 Lest you corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female...

Deuteronomy 27:15 Cursed be the man that makes any graven or molten image, an abomination to the LORD, the work of the hands of the craftsman...

Judges 2:11,17 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim...

Judges 10:6 And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD, and served Baalim, and Ashtaroth, and the gods of Syria...

1 Kings 11:7,10 Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech...

1 Kings 12:31 And he made an house of high places, and made priests of the lowest of the people, which were not of the sons of Levi.

Jeremiah 8:19 Behold the voice of the cry of the daughter of my people because of them that dwell in a far country: Is not the LORD in Zion?...

Hosea 13:2 And now they sin more and more, and have made them molten images of their silver, and idols according to their own understanding...

Cross References
Exodus 20:4
"You shall not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.

Leviticus 26:1
"You shall not make idols for yourselves or erect an image or pillar, and you shall not set up a figured stone in your land to bow down to it, for I am the LORD your God.

Leviticus 26:30
And I will destroy your high places and cut down your incense altars and cast your dead bodies upon the dead bodies of your idols, and my soul will abhor you.

Deuteronomy 4:25
"When you father children and children's children, and have grown old in the land, if you act corruptly by making a carved image in the form of anything, and by doing what is evil in the sight of the LORD your God, so as to provoke him to anger,

Deuteronomy 32:16
They stirred him to jealousy with strange gods; with abominations they provoked him to anger.

Deuteronomy 32:21
They have made me jealous with what is no god; they have provoked me to anger with their idols. So I will make them jealous with those who are no people; I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation.

Judges 2:12
And they abandoned the LORD, the God of their fathers, who had brought them out of the land of Egypt. They went after other gods, from among the gods of the peoples who were around them, and bowed down to them. And they provoked the LORD to anger.

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