Song of Solomon 1:5
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
I am very dark, but lovely, O daughters of Jerusalem, like the tents of Kedar, like the curtains of Solomon.

King James Bible
I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon.

American Standard Version
I am black, but comely, Oh ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon.

Douay-Rheims Bible
I am black but beautiful, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Cedar, as the curtains of Solomon.

English Revised Version
I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon.

Webster's Bible Translation
I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, as the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon.

Song of Solomon 1:5 Parallel
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

"The final result, after all is learned, (is this): Fear God and keep His commandments; for this is the end of every man." Many expositors, as Jerome, the Venet., and Luther, render נשׁמע as fut.: The conclusion of the discourse we would all hear (Salomon); or: The conclusion of the whole discourse or matter let us hear (Panzer, 1773, de Wette-Augusti); Hitzig also takes together soph davar hakol equals soph davar kol-haddavar: The end of the whole discourse let us hear. But הכּל for כּלּנוּ is contrary to the style of the book; and as a general rule, the author uses הכל for the most part of things, seldom of persons. And also soph davar hakol, which it would be better to explain ("the final word of the whole"), with Ewald, 291a, after yemē-olam mosheh, Isaiah 63:11, than it is explained by Hitzig, although, in spite of Philippi's (Sta. const. p. 17) doubt, possible in point of style, and also exemplified in the later period of the language (1 Chronicles 9:13), is yet a stylistic crudeness which the author could have avoided either by writing soph devar hakol, or better, soph kol-haddavar. נשׁמע, Ewald, 168b, renders as a particip. by audiendum; but that also does not commend itself, for נשמע signifies nothing else than auditum, and acquires the meaning of audiendum when from the empirical matter of fact that which is inwardly necessary is concluded; the translation: The final word of the whole is to be heard, audiendum est, would only be admissible of also the translation auditum est were possible, which is not the case. Is נשׁמע thus possibly the pausal form of the finite נשׁמע? We might explain: The end of the matter (summa summarum), all is heard, when, viz., that which follows is heard, which comprehends all that is to be known. Or as Hoelem.: Enough, all is heard, since, viz., that which is given in the book to be learned contains the essence of all true knowledge, viz., the following two fundamental doctrines. This retrospective reference of hakol nishm'a is more natural than the prospective reference; but, on the other hand, it is also more probable that soph davar denotes the final resultat than that it denotes the conclusion of the discourse. The right explanation will be that which combines the retrospective reference of nakol nishm'a and the resultative reference of soph davar. Accordingly, Mendelss. appears to us to be correct when he explains: After thou hast heard all the words of the wise ... this is the final result, etc. Finis (summa) reî omnia audita is equals omnibus auditis, for the sentence denoting the conditions remains externally undesignated, in the same way as at Ecclesiastes 10:14; Deuteronomy 21:1; Ezra 10:6 (Ewald, 341b). After the clause, soph ... nishm'a, Athnach stands where we put a colon: the mediating hocce est is omitted just as at Ecclesiastes 7:12 (where translate: yet the preference of knowledge is this, that, etc.).

The sentence, eth-naeolohim yera ("fear God"), repeating itself from Ecclesiastes 5:6, is the kernel and the star of the whole book, the highest moral demand which mitigates its pessimism and hallows its eudaemonism. The admonition proceeding therefrom, "and keep His commandments," is included in lishmo'a, Ecclesiastes 5:1, which places the hearing of the divine word, viz., a hearing for the purpose of observing, as the very soul of the worship of God above all the opus operatum of ceremonial services.

The connection of the clause, ki-zeh kol-haadam, Hitzig mediates in an unnecessary, roundabout way: "but not thou alone, but this ought every man." But why this negative here introduced to stamp כי as an immo establishing it? It is also certainly suitable as the immediate confirmation of the rectitude of the double admonition finally expressing all. The clause has the form of a simple judgment, it is a substantival clause, the briefest expression for the thought which is intended. What is that thought? The lxx renders: ὃτι τοῦτο πᾶς ὁ ἄνθρωπος; also Symm. and the Venet. render kol haadam by πᾶς ὁ ἄνθρ., and an unnamed translator has ὃλος ὁ ἄνθρ., according to which also the translation of Jerome is to be understood, hoc est enim omnis homo. Thus among the moderns, Herzf., Ewald, Elst., and Heiligst.: for that is the whole man, viz., as to his destiny, the end of his existence (cf. as to the subject-matter, Job 28:28); and v. Hofmann (Schriftbew. II 2, p. 456): this is the whole of man, viz., as Grotius explains: totum hominis bonum; or as Dale and Bullock: "the whole duty of man;" or as Tyler: "the universal law (כל, like the Mishnic כּלל) of man;" or as Hoelem.: that which gives to man for the first time his true and full worth. Knobel also suggests for consideration this rendering: this is the all of man, i.e., on this all with man rests. But against this there is the one fact, that kol-haadam never signifies the whole man, and as little anywhere the whole (the all) of a man. It signifies either "all men" (πάντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι, οἱ πά ἄνθρ οἱ ἄνθρ πά), as at Ecclesiastes 7:2, hu soph kol-haadam, or, of the same meaning as kol-haadam, "every man" (πᾶς ἄντηρωπος), as at Ecclesiastes 3:13; Ecclesiastes 5:18 (lxx, also Ecclesiastes 7:2 : τοῦτο τέλος παντὸς ἀντηρώπου); and it is yet more than improbable that the common expression, instead of which haadam kullo was available, should here have been used in a sense elsewhere unexampled. Continuing in the track of the usus loq., and particularly of the style of the author, we shall thus have to translate: "for this is every man." If we use for it: "for this is every man's," the clause becomes at once distinct; Zirkel renders kol-haadam as genit., and reckons the expression among the Graecisms of the book: παντὸς ἀντηρώπου, Ϛιζ., πρᾶγμα. Or if, with Knobel, Hitz., Bttch., and Ginsburg, we might borrow a verb to supplement the preceding imperat.: "for this ought every man to do," we should also in this way gain the meaning to be expected; but the clause lying before us is certainly a substantival clause, like meh haadam, Ecclesiastes 2:12, not an elliptical verbal clause, like Isaiah 23:5; Isaiah 26:9, where the verb to be supplied easily unfolds itself from the ל of the end of the movement.

We have here a case which is frequent in the Semitic languages, in which subj. and pred. are connected in the form of a simple judgment, and it is left for the hearer to find out the relation sustained by the pred. to the subj. - e.g., Psalm 110:3; Psalm 109:4, "I am prayer;" and in the Book of Koheleth, Ecclesiastes 3:19, "the children of men are a chance."

(Note: Vid., Fleischer's Abh. . einige Arten der Nominalapposition, 1862, and Philippi's St. const. p. 90ff.)

In the same way we have here to explain: for that is every man, viz., according to his destiny and duty; excellently, Luther: for that belongs to all men. With right, Hahn, like Bauer (1732), regards the pronoun as pred. (not subj. as at Ecclesiastes 7:2): "this, i.e., this constituted, that they must do this, are all men," or rather: this equals under obligation thereto, is every man.

(Note: Hitz. thus renders היא, Jeremiah 45:4, predicat.: "And it is such, all the world.")

It is a great thought that is thereby expressed, viz., the reduction of the Israelitish law to its common human essence. This has not escaped the old Jewish teachers. What can this mean: zeh kol-haadam? it is asked, Berachoth 6b; and R. Elazar answers: "The whole world is comprehended therein;" and R. Abba bar-Cahana: "This fundamental law is of the same importance to the universe;" and R. Simeon b. Azzai: "The universe has been created only for the purpose of being commanded this."

(Note: Cf. Jer. Nedarim ix. 3: "Thou oughtest to love thy neighbour as thyself," says R. Akiba, is a principal sentence in the Law. Ben-Azzai says: "The words zěh ... adam (Genesis 5:1) are it in a yet higher degree," because therein the oneness of the origin and the destiny of all men is contained. Aben Ezra alludes to the same thing, when at the close of his Comm. he remarks: "The secret of the non-use of the divine name יהוה in Genesis 1:1-2:3 is the secret of the Book of Koheleth.")

Song of Solomon 1:5 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge


Isaiah 53:2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: he has no form nor comeliness...

Matthew 10:25 It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, and the servant as his lord...

1 Corinthians 4:10-13 We are fools for Christ's sake, but you are wise in Christ; we are weak, but you are strong; you are honorable, but we are despised...

1 John 3:1 Behold, what manner of love the Father has bestowed on us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knows us not...


Psalm 90:17 And let the beauty of the LORD our God be on us: and establish you the work of our hands on us; yes...

Psalm 149:4 For the LORD takes pleasure in his people: he will beautify the meek with salvation.

Isaiah 61:10 I will greatly rejoice in the LORD, my soul shall be joyful in my God; for he has clothed me with the garments of salvation...

Ezekiel 16:14 And your renown went forth among the heathen for your beauty: for it was perfect through my comeliness, which I had put on you...

Matthew 22:1 And Jesus answered and spoke to them again by parables, and said,

Luke 15:22 But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:

Romans 13:14 But put you on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfill the lusts thereof.

2 Corinthians 5:21 For he has made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

Ephesians 5:26 That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,

o ye

Psalm 45:9 Kings' daughters were among your honorable women: on your right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir.

Luke 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which kill the prophets, and stone them that are sent to you...

Galatians 4:26 But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all.

as the tents

Psalm 120:5 Woe is me, that I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in the tents of Kedar!

Cross References
Psalm 120:5
Woe to me, that I sojourn in Meshech, that I dwell among the tents of Kedar!

Song of Solomon 2:7
I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, by the gazelles or the does of the field, that you not stir up or awaken love until it pleases.

Song of Solomon 2:14
O my dove, in the clefts of the rock, in the crannies of the cliff, let me see your face, let me hear your voice, for your voice is sweet, and your face is lovely.

Song of Solomon 3:5
I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, by the gazelles or the does of the field, that you not stir up or awaken love until it pleases.

Song of Solomon 3:10
He made its posts of silver, its back of gold, its seat of purple; its interior was inlaid with love by the daughters of Jerusalem.

Song of Solomon 4:3
Your lips are like a scarlet thread, and your mouth is lovely. Your cheeks are like halves of a pomegranate behind your veil.

Song of Solomon 5:8
I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, if you find my beloved, that you tell him I am sick with love.

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