1 Samuel 20:30
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Saul's anger flared up at Jonathan and he said to him, "You son of a perverse and rebellious woman! Don't I know that you have sided with the son of Jesse to your own shame and to the shame of the mother who bore you?

King James Bible
Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion, and unto the confusion of thy mother's nakedness?

Darby Bible Translation
And Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, Son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own shame and to the shame of thy mother's nakedness?

World English Bible
Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, "You son of a perverse rebellious woman, don't I know that you have chosen the son of Jesse to your own shame, and to the shame of your mother's nakedness?

Young's Literal Translation
And the anger of Saul burneth against Jonathan, and he saith to him, 'Son of a perverse rebellious woman! have I not known that thou art fixing on the son of Jesse to thy shame, and to the shame of the nakedness of thy mother?

1 Samuel 20:30 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman - This clause is variously translated and understood. The Hebrew might be translated, Son of an unjust rebellion; that is, "Thou art a rebel against thy own father." The Vulgate, Fili mulieris virum ultro rapientis; "Son of the woman who, of her own accord, forces the man." The Septuagint is equally curious, Υἱε κορασιων αυτομολουντων; "Son of the damsels who came of their own accord." Were these the meaning of the Hebrew, then the bitter reflection must refer to some secret transaction between Saul and Jonathan's mother; which certainly reflects more dishonor on himself than on his brave son. Most sarcasms bear as hard upon the speaker, as they do on him against whom they are spoken. Abusive language always argues a mean, weak, and malevolent heart.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Saul's

Job 5:2 For wrath kills the foolish man, and envy slays the silly one.

Proverbs 14:29 He that is slow to wrath is of great understanding: but he that is hasty of spirit exalts folly.

Proverbs 19:12,19 The king's wrath is as the roaring of a lion; but his favor is as dew on the grass...

Proverbs 21:24 Proud and haughty scorner is his name, who deals in proud wrath.

Proverbs 25:28 He that has no rule over his own spirit is like a city that is broken down, and without walls.

Proverbs 27:3 A stone is heavy, and the sand weighty; but a fool's wrath is heavier than them both.

James 1:19,20 Why, my beloved brothers, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath...

Thou, etc. or, Thou perverse rebel. [heb] Son of perverse rebellion.

Proverbs 15:2 The tongue of the wise uses knowledge aright: but the mouth of fools pours out foolishness.

Proverbs 21:24 Proud and haughty scorner is his name, who deals in proud wrath.

Matthew 5:22 But I say to you, That whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment...

Ephesians 4:31 Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamor, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice:

Ephesians 6:4 And, you fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.

and unto the This reflection on the mother of Jonathan, by the passionate monarch, reflects more dishonour on himself than on his brave and noble-minded son. Mungo Park gives an instance of the prevalence of the same principles in Africa; for he says, Maternal affection is every where conspicuous among the Africans, and creates a correspondent return of tenderness in the child. `Strike me,' said the attendant, `but do not curse my mother.' I found the same sentiment to prevail universally in all parts of Africa. King Saul, unable to vilify Jonathan to his own satisfaction by personal reproaches, outstepped the ordinary abuse of his day, and proceeded to that which was designed to produce unusual vexation, and vented the bitterness of his mind by maligning the character of his own wife and Jonathan's mother.

Library
Jonathan, the Pattern of Friendship
'And David fled from Naioth in Ramah, and came and said before Jonathan, What have I done? what is mine iniquity? and what is my sin before thy father, that he seeketh my life? 2. And he said unto him, God forbid; thou shalt not die: behold, my father will do nothing either great or small, but that he will shew it me: and why should my father hide this thing from me? it is not so. 3. And David sware moreover, and said, Thy father certainly knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes; and he saith,
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

Samuel
Alike from the literary and the historical point of view, the book[1] of Samuel stands midway between the book of Judges and the book of Kings. As we have already seen, the Deuteronomic book of Judges in all probability ran into Samuel and ended in ch. xii.; while the story of David, begun in Samuel, embraces the first two chapters of the first book of Kings. The book of Samuel is not very happily named, as much of it is devoted to Saul and the greater part to David; yet it is not altogether inappropriate,
John Edgar McFadyen—Introduction to the Old Testament

Cross References
1 Samuel 20:29
He said, 'Let me go, because our family is observing a sacrifice in the town and my brother has ordered me to be there. If I have found favor in your eyes, let me get away to see my brothers.' That is why he has not come to the king's table."

1 Samuel 20:31
As long as the son of Jesse lives on this earth, neither you nor your kingdom will be established. Now send someone to bring him to me, for he must die!"

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