Acts 10:1
Parallel Verses
New International Version
At Caesarea there was a man named Cornelius, a centurion in what was known as the Italian Regiment.

King James Bible
There was a certain man in Caesarea called Cornelius, a centurion of the band called the Italian band,

Darby Bible Translation
But a certain man in Caesarea, -- by name Cornelius, a centurion of the band called Italic,

World English Bible
Now there was a certain man in Caesarea, Cornelius by name, a centurion of what was called the Italian Regiment,

Young's Literal Translation
And there was a certain man in Caesarea, by name Cornelius, a centurion from a band called Italian,

Acts 10:1 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

There was a certain man in Caesarea - This was Caesarea of Palestine, called also Strato's Tower, as has been already noted, and the residence of the Roman procurator.

A centurion - Ἑκατονταρχης, The chief or captain of 100 men, as both the Greek and Latin words imply. How the Roman armies were formed, divided, and marshalled, see in the notes on Matthew 20:16 (note). A centurion among the Romans was about the same rank as a captain among us.

The band called the Italian band - The word σπειρα, which we translate band, signifies the same as cohort or regiment, which sometimes consisted of 555 infantry, and 66 cavalry; but the cohors prima, or first cohort, consisted of 1105 infantry, and 132 cavalry, in the time of Vegetius. But the cavalry are not to be considered as part of the cohort, but rather a company joined to it. A Roman legion consisted of ten cohorts; the first of which surpassed all the others, both in numbers and in dignity. When in former times the Roman legion contained 6000, each cohort consisted of 600, and was divided into three manipuli; but both the legions and cohorts were afterwards various in the numbers they contained. As there were doubtless many Syrian auxiliaries, the regiment in question was distinguished from them as consisting of Italian, i.e. Roman, soldiers. The Italian cohort is not unknown among the Roman writers: Gruter gives an inscription, which was found in the Forum Sempronii, on a fine table of marble, nine feet long, four feet broad, and four inches thick; on which are the following words: -

l. maesio. l. f. pol.

rvfo. proc. avg.

trib. mil. leg. x.

appollinaris. trib.

coh. mil. ITALIC. volunt.

qvae. est. in. syria. praef.

fabrvm. bis.

See Gruter's Inscriptions, p. ccccxxxiii-iv.

This was probably the same cohort as that mentioned here by St. Luke; for the tenth legion mentioned in the above inscription was certainly in Judea, a.d. 69. Tacitus also mentions the Italica legio, the Italic legion, lib. i. c. 59, which Junius Blaesus had under his command in the province of Lyons. We learn, from the Roman historians, that the fifth, tenth, and fifteenth legions were stationed in Judea; and the third, fourth, sixth, and twelfth in Syria. The Italic legion was in the battle of Bedriacum, fought, a.d. 69, between the troops of Vitellius and Otho; and performed essential services to the Vitellian army. See Tacitus, Hist. lib. ii. cap. 41. The issue of this battle was the defeat of the Othonians, on which Otho slew himself, and the empire was confirmed to Vitellius.

Wherever he sees it necessary, St. Luke carefully gives dates and facts, to which any might have recourse who might be disposed to doubt his statements: we have had several proofs of this in his Gospel. See especially Luke 1:1 (note), etc., and Luke 3:1 (note), etc., and the notes there.

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Acts 8:40 But Philip was found at Azotus: and passing through he preached in all the cities, till he came to Caesarea.

Acts 21:8 And the next day we that were of Paul's company departed, and came to Caesarea: and we entered into the house of Philip the evangelist...

Acts 23:23,33 And he called to him two centurions, saying, Make ready two hundred soldiers to go to Caesarea, and horsemen three score and ten...

Acts 25:1,13 Now when Festus was come into the province, after three days he ascended from Caesarea to Jerusalem...

a centurion.

Acts 22:25 And as they bound him with thongs, Paul said to the centurion that stood by, Is it lawful for you to whip a man that is a Roman...

Acts 27:1,31,43 And when it was determined that we should sail into Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners to one named Julius...

Matthew 8:5 And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, there came to him a centurion, beseeching him,

*etc:

Matthew 27:54 Now when the centurion, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw the earthquake, and those things that were done...

Luke 7:2 And a certain centurion's servant, who was dear to him, was sick, and ready to die.

Italian. The Italian band, or rather cohort, [speira,] (a regiment sometimes consisting of from

555 to

1,105 infantry), is not unknown to the Roman writers, (See Tacitus;) and Gruter gives an inscription in which it is mentioned, which was found in the Forum Sempronii, on a fine marble table.

Acts 27:1 And when it was determined that we should sail into Italy, they delivered Paul and certain other prisoners to one named Julius...

Library
December 2 Morning
Ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things.--I JOHN 2:20. God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power.--It pleased the Father that in him should all fulness dwell.--Of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace. Thou anointest my head with oil.--The anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught
Anonymous—Daily Light on the Daily Path

Easter Monday
Text: Acts 10, 34-43. 34 And Peter opened his mouth, and said: Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons: 35 but in every nation he that feareth him, and worketh righteousness, is acceptable to him. 36 The word which he sent unto the children of Israel, preaching good tidings of peace by Jesus Christ (he is Lord of all)--37 that saying ye yourselves know, which was published throughout all Judaea, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which John preached; 38 even Jesus of Nazareth,
Martin Luther—Epistle Sermons, Vol. II

Whether Paul, when in Rapture, Saw the Essence of God?
Objection 1: It would seem that Paul, when in rapture, did not see the essence of God. For just as we read of Paul that he was rapt to the third heaven, so we read of Peter (Acts 10:10) that "there came upon him an ecstasy of mind." Now Peter, in his ecstasy, saw not God's essence but an imaginary vision. Therefore it would seem that neither did Paul see the essence of God. Objection 2: Further, the vision of God is beatific. But Paul, in his rapture, was not beatified; else he would never have returned
Saint Thomas Aquinas—Summa Theologica

Whether the World is to be Cleansed?
Objection 1: It would seem that there is not to be any cleansing of the world. For only that which is unclean needs cleansing. Now God's creatures are not unclean, wherefore it is written (Acts 10:15): "That which God hath cleansed, do not thou call common," i.e. unclean. Therefore the creatures of the world shall not be cleansed. Objection 2: Further, according to Divine justice cleansing is directed to the removal of the uncleanness of sin, as instanced in the cleansing after death. But there can
Saint Thomas Aquinas—Summa Theologica

Cross References
Matthew 27:27
Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium and gathered the whole company of soldiers around him.

Mark 15:16
The soldiers led Jesus away into the palace (that is, the Praetorium) and called together the whole company of soldiers.

John 18:3
So Judas came to the garden, guiding a detachment of soldiers and some officials from the chief priests and the Pharisees. They were carrying torches, lanterns and weapons.

John 18:12
Then the detachment of soldiers with its commander and the Jewish officials arrested Jesus. They bound him

Acts 8:40
Philip, however, appeared at Azotus and traveled about, preaching the gospel in all the towns until he reached Caesarea.

Acts 10:24
The following day he arrived in Caesarea. Cornelius was expecting them and had called together his relatives and close friends.

Acts 21:31
While they were trying to kill him, news reached the commander of the Roman troops that the whole city of Jerusalem was in an uproar.

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