Ecclesiastes 4:4
Parallel Verses
New International Version
And I saw that all toil and all achievement spring from one person's envy of another. This too is meaningless, a chasing after the wind.

King James Bible
Again, I considered all travail, and every right work, that for this a man is envied of his neighbour. This is also vanity and vexation of spirit.

Darby Bible Translation
And I saw all labour, and all success of work, that it is man's jealousy of his neighbour. This also is vanity and pursuit of the wind.

World English Bible
Then I saw all the labor and achievement that is the envy of a man's neighbor. This also is vanity and a striving after wind.

Young's Literal Translation
And I have seen all the labour, and all the benefit of the work, because for it a man is the envy of his neighbour. Even this is vanity and vexation of spirit.

Ecclesiastes 4:4 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

For this a man is envied - It is not by injustice and wrong only that men suffer, but through envy also. For if a man act uprightly and properly in the world, he soon becomes the object of his neighbor's envy and calumny too. Therefore the encouragement to do good, to act an upright part, is very little. This constitutes a part of the vain and empty system of human life.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

every or all the rightness of work, that this is the envy of a man from his neighbour

Genesis 4:4-8 And Abel, he also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of the fat thereof. And the LORD had respect to Abel and to his offering...

Genesis 37:2-11 These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brothers...

1 Samuel 18:8,9,14-16,29,30 And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he said, They have ascribed to David ten thousands...

Proverbs 27:4 Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous; but who is able to stand before envy?

Matthew 27:18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered him.

Acts 7:9 And the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into Egypt: but God was with him,

James 4:5 Do you think that the scripture said in vain, The spirit that dwells in us lusts to envy?

1 John 3:12 Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. And why slew he him? Because his own works were evil...

this is

Ecclesiastes 3:16 And moreover I saw under the sun the place of judgment, that wickedness was there; and the place of righteousness...

Ecclesiastes 1:14 I have seen all the works that are done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity and vexation of spirit.

Ecclesiastes 2:21,26 For there is a man whose labor is in wisdom, and in knowledge, and in equity...

Ecclesiastes 6:9,11 Better is the sight of the eyes than the wandering of the desire: this is also vanity and vexation of spirit...

Genesis 37:4,11 And when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably to him...

Library
The Order of Thought which Surrounded the Development of Jesus.
As the cooled earth no longer permits us to understand the phenomena of primitive creation, because the fire which penetrated it is extinct, so deliberate explanations have always appeared somewhat insufficient when applying our timid methods of induction to the revolutions of the creative epochs which have decided the fate of humanity. Jesus lived at one of those times when the game of public life is freely played, and when the stake of human activity is increased a hundredfold. Every great part,
Ernest Renan—The Life of Jesus

The Upbringing of Jewish Children
The tenderness of the bond which united Jewish parents to their children appears even in the multiplicity and pictorialness of the expressions by which the various stages of child-life are designated in the Hebrew. Besides such general words as "ben" and "bath"--"son" and "daughter"--we find no fewer than nine different terms, each depicting a fresh stage of life. The first of these simply designates the babe as the newly--"born"--the "jeled," or, in the feminine, "jaldah"--as in Exodus 2:3, 6, 8.
Alfred Edersheim—Sketches of Jewish Social Life

Cross References
Ecclesiastes 1:14
I have seen all the things that are done under the sun; all of them are meaningless, a chasing after the wind.

Ecclesiastes 1:17
Then I applied myself to the understanding of wisdom, and also of madness and folly, but I learned that this, too, is a chasing after the wind.

Ecclesiastes 2:21
For a person may labor with wisdom, knowledge and skill, and then they must leave all they own to another who has not toiled for it. This too is meaningless and a great misfortune.

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Cause Chasing Considered Desire Envied Envy Excelling Labor Meaningless Neighbor Neighbour Purpose Pursuit Result Right Rivalry Skilful Skill Spirit Spring Striving Success Travail Vanity Vexation Wind Work
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