Esther 8:10
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Mordecai wrote in the name of King Xerxes, sealed the dispatches with the king's signet ring, and sent them by mounted couriers, who rode fast horses especially bred for the king.

King James Bible
And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries:

Darby Bible Translation
And he wrote in the name of king Ahasuerus, and sealed [it] with the king's ring, and sent letters by couriers on horseback riding on coursers, horses of blood reared in the breeding studs:

World English Bible
He wrote in the name of King Ahasuerus, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by courier on horseback, riding on royal horses that were bread from swift steeds.

Young's Literal Translation
And he writeth in the name of the king Ahasuerus, and sealeth with the signet of the king, and sendeth letters by the hand of the runners with horses, riders of the dromedary, the mules, the young mares,

Esther 8:10 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

On mules, camels, and young dromedaries - What these beasts were is difficult to say. The word רכש rechesh, which we translate mules, signifies a swift chariot horse.

The strange word אחשתרנים achashteranim is probably a Persian word, but perhaps incurably corrupted. The most likely derivation is that of Bochart, from the Persian akhash, huge, large, rough, and aster, a mule; large mules.

The words בני הרמכים beney harammachim, the sons of mares, which we translate dromedaries, are supposed to signify mules, produced between the he ass and the mare, to distinguish them from those produced between the stallion and the ass, But there is really so much confusion about these matters, and so little consent among learned men as to the signification of these words, and even the true knowledge of them is of such little importance, that we may well rest contented with such names as our modern translations have given us. They were, no doubt, the swiftest and hardiest beasts that the city or country could produce.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

in the king.

1 Kings 21:8 So she wrote letters in Ahab's name, and sealed them with his seal...

Ecclesiastes 8:4 Where the word of a king is, there is power: and who may say to him, What do you?

Daniel 4:1 Nebuchadnezzar the king, to all people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; Peace be multiplied to you.

by posts.

Esther 3:13 And the letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews...

2 Chronicles 30:6 So the posts went with the letters from the king and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah...

Job 9:25 Now my days are swifter than a post: they flee away, they see no good.

Jeremiah 51:21 And with you will I break in pieces the horse and his rider; and with you will I break in pieces the chariot and his rider;

mules. {Rechesh,} in Syriac, {rechesha,} probably denotes a swift horse.

camels. {Achashteranim,} from the Persian {akhash,} large, and {aster,} a mule, probably, as Bochart supposes, denotes a large mule.

young dromedaries. {Beney harammachim,} the sons of mares, as the word {ramakat} denotes in Arabic; probably an expletive of the preceeding word.

Isaiah 60:6 The multitude of camels shall cover you, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come...

Isaiah 66:20 And they shall bring all your brothers for an offering to the LORD out of all nations on horses, and in chariots, and in litters...

Jeremiah 2:23 How can you say, I am not polluted, I have not gone after Baalim? see your way in the valley, know what you have done...

Library
The Net Broken
'And Esther spake yet again before the king, and fell down at his feet, and besought him with tears to put away the mischief of Haman the Agagite, and his device that he had devised against the Jews. 4. Then the king held out the golden sceptre toward Esther. So Esther arose, and stood before the king, 5. And said, If it please the king, and if I have found favour in his sight, and the thing seem right before the king, and I be pleasing in his eyes, let it be written to reverse the letters devised
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

Esther
The spirit of the book of Esther is anything but attractive. It is never quoted or referred to by Jesus or His apostles, and it is a satisfaction to think that in very early times, and even among Jewish scholars, its right to a place in the canon was hotly contested. Its aggressive fanaticism and fierce hatred of all that lay outside of Judaism were felt by the finer spirits to be false to the more generous instincts that lay at the heart of the Hebrew religion; but by virtue of its very intensity
John Edgar McFadyen—Introduction to the Old Testament

Cross References
1 Kings 4:28
They also brought to the proper place their quotas of barley and straw for the chariot horses and the other horses.

1 Kings 21:8
So she wrote letters in Ahab's name, placed his seal on them, and sent them to the elders and nobles who lived in Naboth's city with him.

Esther 3:12
Then on the thirteenth day of the first month the royal secretaries were summoned. They wrote out in the script of each province and in the language of each people all Haman's orders to the king's satraps, the governors of the various provinces and the nobles of the various peoples. These were written in the name of King Xerxes himself and sealed with his own ring.

Esther 3:13
Dispatches were sent by couriers to all the king's provinces with the order to destroy, kill and annihilate all the Jews--young and old, women and children--on a single day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the month of Adar, and to plunder their goods.

Esther 8:8
Now write another decree in the king's name in behalf of the Jews as seems best to you, and seal it with the king's signet ring--for no document written in the king's name and sealed with his ring can be revoked."

Daniel 6:8
Now, Your Majesty, issue the decree and put it in writing so that it cannot be altered--in accordance with the law of the Medes and Persians, which cannot be repealed."

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Ahasuerus Ahasu-E'rus Bread Bred Camels Courier Couriers Dromedaries Especially Horseback Horses King's Letters Mordecai Mules Post Posts Riders Riding Ring Royal Sealed Service Stamped Steeds Swift Used Writing Wrote Xerxes Young
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Ahasuerus Ahasu-E'rus Bread Bred Camels Courier Couriers Dromedaries Especially Horseback Horses King's Letters Mordecai Mules Post Posts Riders Riding Ring Royal Sealed Service Stamped Steeds Swift Used Writing Wrote Xerxes Young
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