New International Version
They made their lives bitter with harsh labor in brick and mortar and with all kinds of work in the fields; in all their harsh labor the Egyptians worked them ruthlessly.
King James Bible
And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour.
Darby Bible Translation
and they embittered their life with hard labour in clay and bricks, and in all manner of labour in the field: all their labour with which they made them serve was with harshness.
World English Bible
and they made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and in brick, and in all kinds of service in the field, all their service, in which they ruthlessly made them serve.
Young's Literal Translation
and make their lives bitter in hard service, in clay, and in brick, and in every kind of service in the field; all their service in which they have served is with rigour.
Exodus 1:14 Parallel
CommentaryClarke's Commentary on the Bible
They made their lives bitter - So that they became weary of life, through the severity of their servitude.
With hard bondage - בעבדה קשה baabodah kashah, with grievous servitude. This was the general character of their life in Egypt; it was a life of the most painful servitude, oppressive enough in itself, but made much more so by the cruel manner of their treatment while performing their tasks.
In mortar, and in brick - First, in digging the clay, kneading, and preparing it, and secondly, forming it into bricks, drying them in the sun, etc.
Service in the field - Carrying these materials to the places where they were to be formed into buildings, and serving the builders while employed in those public works. Josephus says "The Egyptians contrived a variety of ways to afflict the Israelites; for they enjoined them to cut a great number of channels for the river, and to build walls for their cities and ramparts, that they might restrain the river, and hinder its waters from stagnating upon its overrunning its own banks; they set them also to build pyramids, (πυραμιδας τε ανοικοδομουντες), and wore them out, and forced them to learn all sorts of mechanic arts, and to accustom themselves to hard labor." - Antiq., lib. ii., cap. ix., sec. 1. Philo bears nearly the same testimony, p. 86, Edit. Mangey.
Treasury of Scripture Knowledge
was with rigour.
LibraryFour Shaping Centuries
'Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt: every man and his household came with Jacob. 2. Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, 3. Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin, 4. Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher. 5. And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already. 6. And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation. 7, And the children of Israel were fruitful, and increased abundantly, and multiplied, and waxed …
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture
But, as for that which is Written, that God did Good to the Hebrew...
He dealt treacherously with our people and oppressed our ancestors by forcing them to throw out their newborn babies so that they would die.
So they put slave masters over them to oppress them with forced labor, and they built Pithom and Rameses as store cities for Pharaoh.
and worked them ruthlessly.
The king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, whose names were Shiphrah and Puah,
During that long period, the king of Egypt died. The Israelites groaned in their slavery and cried out, and their cry for help because of their slavery went up to God.
Moses reported this to the Israelites, but they did not listen to him because of their discouragement and harsh labor.
Do not rule over them ruthlessly, but fear your God.
Jump to PreviousBitter Bondage Brick Bricks Clay Conditions Egyptians Embittered Field Fields Hard Hardest Harshness Imposed Kind Kinds Life Lives Making Manner Mortar Rigor Rigorously Rigour Ruthlessly Serve Service Sorts Used Wherein Work
Jump to NextBitter Bondage Brick Bricks Clay Conditions Egyptians Embittered Field Fields Hard Hardest Harshness Imposed Kind Kinds Life Lives Making Manner Mortar Rigor Rigorously Rigour Ruthlessly Serve Service Sorts Used Wherein Work
LinksExodus 1:14 NIV
Exodus 1:14 NLT
Exodus 1:14 ESV
Exodus 1:14 NASB
Exodus 1:14 KJV
Exodus 1:14 Bible Apps
Exodus 1:14 Biblia Paralela
Exodus 1:14 Chinese Bible
Exodus 1:14 French Bible
Exodus 1:14 German Bible
Exodus 1:14 Commentaries
THE HOLY BIBLE, NEW INTERNATIONAL VERSION®, NIV® Copyright © 1973, 1978, 1984, 2011 by Biblica®.