Exodus 24:10
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New International Version
and saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was something like a pavement made of lapis lazuli, as bright blue as the sky.

King James Bible
And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness.

Darby Bible Translation
and they saw the God of Israel; and there was under his feet as it were work of transparent sapphire, and as it were the form of heaven for clearness.

World English Bible
They saw the God of Israel. Under his feet was like a paved work of sapphire stone, like the skies for clearness.

Young's Literal Translation
and they see the God of Israel, and under His feet is as the white work of the sapphire, and as the substance of the heavens for purity;

Exodus 24:10 Parallel
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

They saw the God of Israel - The seventy elders, who were representatives of the whole congregation, were chosen to witness the manifestation of God, that they might be satisfied of the truth of the revelation which he had made of himself and of his will; and on this occasion it was necessary that the people also should be favored with a sight of the glory of God; see Exodus 20:18. Thus the certainty of the revelation was established by many witnesses, and by those especially of the most competent kind.

A paved work of a sapphire stone - Or sapphire brick-work. I suppose that something of the Musive or Mosaic pavement is here intended; floors most curiously inlaid with variously coloured stones or small square tiles, disposed in a great variety of ornamental forms. Many of these remain in different countries to the present day. The Romans were particularly fond of them, and left monuments of their taste and ingenuity in pavements of this kind, in most countries where they established their dominion. Some very fine specimens are found in different parts of Britain.

Sapphire is a precious stone of a fine blue color, next in hardness to the diamond. The ruby is considered by most mineralogists of the same genus; so is also the topaz: hence we cannot say that the sapphire is only of a blue color; it is blue, red, or yellow, as it may be called sapphire, ruby, or topaz; and some of them are blue or green, according to the light in which they are held; and some white. A very large specimen of such a one is now before me. The ancient oriental sapphire is supposed to have been the same with the lapis lazuli. Supposing that these different kinds of sapphires are here intended, how glorious must a pavement be, constituted of polished stones of this sort, perfectly transparent, with an effulgence of heavenly splendor poured out upon them! The red, the blue, the green, and the yellow, arranged by the wisdom of God, into the most beautiful emblematic representations, and the whole body of heaven in its clearness shining upon them, must have made a most glorious appearance. As the Divine glory appeared above the mount, it is reasonable to suppose that the Israelites saw the sapphire pavement over their heads, as it might have occupied a space in the atmosphere equal in extent to the base of the mountain; and being transparent, the intense brightness shining upon it must have greatly heightened the effect.

It is necessary farther to observe that all this must have been only an appearance, unconnected with any personal similitude; for this Moses expressly asserts, Deuteronomy 4:15. And though the feet are here mentioned, this can only be understood of the sapphirine basis or pavement, on which this celestial and indescribable glory of the Lord appeared. There is a similar description of the glory of the Lord in the Book of Revelation, Revelation 4:3 : "And he who sat [upon the throne] was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone; and there was a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald." In neither of these appearances was there any similitude or likeness of any thing in heaven, earth, or sea. Thus God took care to preserve them from all incentives to idolatry, while he gave them the fullest proofs of his being. In Scheuchzer's Physica Sacra, among his numerous fine engravings, there is one of this glorious manifestation, which cannot be too severely reprehended. The Supreme Being is represented as an old man, sitting on a throne, encompassed with glory, having a crown on his head, and a scepter in his hand, the people prostrate in adoration at the foot of the piece. A print of this kind should be considered as utterly improper, if not blasphemous.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge


Exodus 3:6 Moreover he said, I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. And Moses hid his face...

Exodus 33:20,23 And he said, You can not see my face: for there shall no man see me, and live...

Genesis 32:30 And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.

Judges 13:21,22 But the angel of the LORD did no more appear to Manoah and to his wife. Then Manoah knew that he was an angel of the LORD...

1 Kings 22:19 And he said, Hear you therefore the word of the LORD: I saw the LORD sitting on his throne...

Isaiah 6:1-5 In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the LORD sitting on a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple...

Ezekiel 1:28 As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about...

John 1:18 No man has seen God at any time, the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him.

John 14:9 Jesus said to him, Have I been so long time with you, and yet have you not known me, Philip? he that has seen me has seen the Father...

1 Timothy 6:16 Who only has immortality, dwelling in the light which no man can approach to; whom no man has seen, nor can see...

1 John 4:12 No man has seen God at any time. If we love one another, God dwells in us, and his love is perfected in us.

of a sapphire stone. The Hebrew sappir, is without doubt the sapphire; which is a most beautiful precious stone of a fine blue colour, second only to the diamond in lustre, hardness, and value. The ancient oriental sapphire is supposed to have been the same as the lapis lazuli. It glitters with golden spots; and is of an azure or sky-blue colour, but rarely intermixed with purple. The ruby and topaz are considered of the same genus.

Ezekiel 1:26,27 And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone...

Ezekiel 10:1 Then I looked, and, behold...

Revelation 4:3 And he that sat was to look on like a jasper and a sardine stone: and there was a rainbow round about the throne...

Revelation 21:19-23 And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper...

in his clearness

Songs 6:10 Who is she that looks forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners?

Matthew 17:2 And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light.

Revelation 1:16 And he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth went a sharp two edged sword...

Revelation 21:11,18 Having the glory of God: and her light was like to a stone most precious, even like a jasper stone, clear as crystal...

Sin and Forgiveness
'... Forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty....'--EXODUS xxiv. 7. The former chapter tells us of the majesty of the divine revelation as it was made to Moses on 'the mount of God.' Let us notice that, whatever was the visible pomp of the external Theophany to the senses, the true revelation lay in the proclamation of the 'Name'; the revelation to the conscience and the heart; and such a revelation had never before fallen on mortal ears. It is remarkable
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

The Blood of the Testament
BLOOD IS ALWAYS a terrible thing. It makes a sensitive mind shudder even to pronounce the word; but, to look upon the thing itself causes a thrill of horror. Although by familiarity men shake this off, for the seeing of the eye and the hearing of the ear can harden the heart, the instinct of a little child may teach you what is natural to us in referer to blood. How it will worry if its finger bleeds ever so little, shocked as the sight, actually there be no smart. I envy not the man whose pity would
Charles Haddon Spurgeon—Spurgeon's Sermons Volume 58: 1912

Brief Outline of Ancient Jewish Theological Literature
The arrangements of the synagogue, as hitherto described, combined in a remarkable manner fixedness of order with liberty of the individual. Alike the seasons and the time of public services, their order, the prayers to be offered, and the portions of the law to be read were fixed. On the other hand, between the eighteen "benedictions" said on ordinary days, and the seven repeated on the Sabbaths, free prayer might be inserted; the selection from the prophets, with which the public reading concluded--the
Alfred Edersheim—Sketches of Jewish Social Life

Jesus Calls Four Fishermen to Follow Him.
(Sea of Galilee, Near Capernaum.) ^A Matt. IV. 18-22; ^B Mark I. 16-20; ^C Luke V. 1-11. ^a 18 And walking ^b 16 And passing along by the sea of Galilee [This lake is a pear-shaped body of water, about twelve and a half miles long and about seven miles across at its widest place. It is 682 feet below sea level; its waters are fresh, clear and abounding in fish, and it is surrounded by hills and mountains, which rise from 600 to 1,000 feet above it. Its greatest depth is about 165 feet], he [Jesus]
J. W. McGarvey—The Four-Fold Gospel

Cross References
John 1:18
No one has ever seen God, but the one and only Son, who is himself God and is in closest relationship with the Father, has made him known.

John 6:46
No one has seen the Father except the one who is from God; only he has seen the Father.

Revelation 4:3
And the one who sat there had the appearance of jasper and ruby. A rainbow that shone like an emerald encircled the throne.

Genesis 32:30
So Jacob called the place Peniel, saying, "It is because I saw God face to face, and yet my life was spared."

Exodus 24:11
But God did not raise his hand against these leaders of the Israelites; they saw God, and they ate and drank.

Numbers 12:8
With him I speak face to face, clearly and not in riddles; he sees the form of the LORD. Why then were you not afraid to speak against my servant Moses?"

Song of Solomon 5:14
His arms are rods of gold set with topaz. His body is like polished ivory decorated with lapis lazuli.

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