Genesis 10:3
Parallel Verses
New International Version
The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah.

King James Bible
And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

Darby Bible Translation
And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

World English Bible
The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

Young's Literal Translation
And sons of Gomer are Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

Genesis 10:3 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Ashkenaz - Probably gave his name to Sacagena, a very excellent province of Armenia. Pliny mentions a people called Ascanitici, who dwelt about the Tanais and the Palus Maeotis; and some suppose that from Ashkenaz the Euxine Sea derived its name, but others suppose that from him the Germans derived their origin.

Riphath - Or Diphath, the founder of the Paphlagonians, which were anciently called Riphataei.

Togarmah - The Sauromates, or inhabitants of Turcomania. See the reasons in Calmet.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Jeremiah 51:27 Lift up a signal in the land, Blow a trumpet among the nations! Consecrate the nations against her, Summon against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni and Ashkenaz; Appoint a marshal against her, Bring up the horses like bristly locusts.

Ezekiel 27:14 "Those from Beth-togarmah gave horses and war horses and mules for your wares.

Library
Ancient Chaldaea
The Creation, the Deluge, the history of the gods--The country, its cities its inhabitants, its early dynasties. [Illustration: 002a.jpg] "In the time when nothing which was called heaven existed above, and when nothing below had as yet received the name of earth,* Apsu, the Ocean, who first was their father, and Chaos-Tiamat, who gave birth to them all, mingled their waters in one, reeds which were not united, rushes which bore no fruit."** Life germinated slowly in this inert mass, in which the
G. Maspero—History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 3

The Sea of Sodom
The bounds of Judea, on both sides, are the sea; the western bound is the Mediterranean,--the eastern, the Dead sea, or the sea of Sodom. This the Jewish writers every where call, which you may not so properly interpret here, "the salt sea," as "the bituminous sea." In which sense word for word, "Sodom's salt," but properly "Sodom's bitumen," doth very frequently occur among them. The use of it was in the holy incense. They mingled 'bitumen,' 'the amber of Jordan,' and [an herb known to few], with
John Lightfoot—From the Talmud and Hebraica

The Blessings of Noah Upon Shem and Japheth. (Gen. Ix. 18-27. )
Ver. 20. "And Noah began and became an husbandman, and planted vineyards."--This does not imply that Noah was the first who began to till the ground, and, more especially, to cultivate the vine; for Cain, too, was a tiller of the ground, Gen. iv. 2. The sense rather is, that Noah, after the flood, again took up this calling. Moreover, the remark has not an independent import; it serves only to prepare the way for the communication of the subsequent account of Noah's drunkenness. By this remark,
Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg—Christology of the Old Testament

Influences that Gave Rise to the Priestly Laws and Histories
[Sidenote: Influences in the exile that produced written ceremonial laws] The Babylonian exile gave a great opportunity and incentive to the further development of written law. While the temple stood, the ceremonial rites and customs received constant illustration, and were transmitted directly from father to son in the priestly families. Hence, there was little need of writing them down. But when most of the priests were carried captive to Babylonia, as in 597 B.C., and ten years later the temple
Charles Foster Kent—The Origin & Permanent Value of the Old Testament

Cross References
1 Chronicles 1:6
The sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, Riphath and Togarmah.

Jeremiah 51:27
"Lift up a banner in the land! Blow the trumpet among the nations! Prepare the nations for battle against her; summon against her these kingdoms: Ararat, Minni and Ashkenaz. Appoint a commander against her; send up horses like a swarm of locusts.

Ezekiel 27:14
"'Men of Beth Togarmah exchanged chariot horses, cavalry horses and mules for your merchandise.

Ezekiel 38:6
also Gomer with all its troops, and Beth Togarmah from the far north with all its troops--the many nations with you.

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