Matthew 5:22
Parallel Verses
New International Version
But I tell you that anyone who is angry with a brother or sister will be subject to judgment. Again, anyone who says to a brother or sister, 'Raca,' is answerable to the court. And anyone who says, 'You fool!' will be in danger of the fire of hell.

King James Bible
But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.

Darby Bible Translation
But *I* say unto you, that every one that is lightly angry with his brother shall be subject to the judgment; but whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be subject to [be called before] the sanhedrim; but whosoever shall say, Fool, shall be subject to the penalty of the hell of fire.

World English Bible
But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, 'Raca!' shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, 'You fool!' shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna.

Young's Literal Translation
but I -- I say to you, that every one who is angry at his brother without cause, shall be in danger of the judgment, and whoever may say to his brother, Empty fellow! shall be in danger of the sanhedrim, and whoever may say, Rebel! shall be in danger of the gehenna of the fire.

Matthew 5:22 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause - ὁ οργιζομενος - εικη, who is vainly incensed. "This translation is literal; and the very objectionable phrase, without a cause, is left out, εικη being more properly translated by that above." What our Lord seems here to prohibit, is not merely that miserable facility which some have of being angry at every trifle, continually taking offense against their best friends; but that anger which leads a man to commit outrages against another, thereby subjecting himself to that punishment which was to be inflicted on those who break the peace. Εικη, vainly, or, as in the common translation, without a cause, is wanting in the famous Vatican MS. and two others, the Ethiopic, latter Arabic, Saxon, Vulgate, two copies of the old Itala, J. Martyr, Ptolomeus, Origen, Tertullian, and by all the ancient copies quoted by St. Jerome. It was probably a marginal gloss originally, which in process of time crept into the text.

Shall be in danger of the judgment - ενοχος εϚται, shall be liable to the judgment. That is, to have the matter brought before a senate, composed of twenty-three magistrates, whose business it was to judge in cases of murder and other capital crimes. It punished criminals by strangling or beheading; but Dr. Lightfoot supposes the judgment of God to be intended. See at the end of this chapter.

Raca - ריקה from the Hebrew רק rak, to be empty. It signifies a vain, empty, worthless fellow, shallow brains, a term of great contempt. Such expressions were punished among the Gentoos by a heavy fine. See all the cases, Code of Gentoo Laws, chap. 15: sec. 2.

The council - Συνεδριον, the famous council, known among the Jews by the name of Sanhedrin. It was composed of seventy-two elders, six chosen out of each tribe. This grand Sanhedrin not only received appeals from the inferior Sanhedrins, or court of twenty-three mentioned above; but could alone take cognizance, in the first instance, of the highest crimes, and alone inflict the punishment of stoning.

Thou fool - Moreh, probably from מרה marah, to rebel, a rebel against God, apostate from all good. This term implied, among the Jews, the highest enormity, and most aggravated guilt. Among the Gentoos, such an expression was punished by cutting out the tongue, and thrusting a hot iron, of ten fingers breadth, into the mouth of the person who used it. Code of Gentoo Laws, chap. 15: sec. 2. p. 212.

Shall be in danger of hell fire - ενοχος εϚται εις την γεενναν του πυρος, shall be liable to the hell of fire. Our Lord here alludes to the valley of the son of Hinnom, גי הנם Ghi hinom. This place was near Jerusalem, and had been formerly used for those abominable sacrifices, in which the idolatrous Jews had caused their children to pass through the fire to Molech. A particular place in this valley was called Tophet, from תפת tophet, the fire stove, in which some supposed they burnt their children alive to the above idol. See 2 Kings 23:10; 2 Chronicles 28:3; Jeremiah 7:31, Jeremiah 7:32. From the circumstances of this valley having been the scene of those infernal sacrifices, the Jews, in our Savior's time, used the word for hell, the place of the damned. See the word applied in this sense by the Targum, on Ruth 2:12; Psalm 140:12; Genesis 3:24; Genesis 15:17. It is very probable that our Lord means no more here than this: if a man charge another with apostasy from the Jewish religion, or rebellion against God, and cannot prove his charge, then he is exposed to that punishment (burning alive) which the other must have suffered, if the charge had been substantiated. There are three kinds of offenses here, which exceed each other in their degrees of guilt.

1st. Anger against a man, accompanied with some injurious act.

2dly. Contempt, expressed by the opprobrious epithet raka, or shallow brains.

3dly. Hatred and mortal enmity, expressed by the term moreh, or apostate, where such apostasy could not be proved.

Now, proportioned to these three offenses were three different degrees of punishment, each exceeding the other in its severity, as the offenses exceeded each other in their different degrees of guilt.

1st. The judgment, the council of twenty-three, which could inflict the punishment of strangling.

2dly. The Sanhedrin, or great council, which could inflict the punishment of stoning. And

3dly. The being burnt alive in the valley of the son of Hinnom. This appears to be the meaning of our Lord.

Now, if the above offenses were to be so severely punished, which did not immediately affect the life of another, how much sorer must the punishment of murder be! Matthew 5:21. And as there could not be a greater punishment inflicted than death, in the above terrific forms, and this was to be inflicted for minor crimes; then the punishment of murder must not only have death here, but a hell of fire in the eternal world, attached to it. It seems that these different degrees of guilt, and the punishment attached to each, had not been properly distinguished among the Jews. Our Lord here calls their attention back to them, and gives then to understand, that in the coming world there are different degrees of punishment prepared for different degrees of vice; and that not only the outward act of iniquity should be judged and punished by the Lord, but that injurious words, and evil passions, should all meet their just recompense and reward. Murder is the most punishable of all crimes, according to the written law, in respect both of our neighbors and civil society. But he who sees the heart, and judges it by the eternal law, punishes as much a word or a desire, if the hatred whence they proceed be complete and perfected. Dr. Lightfoot has some curious observations on this passage in the preface to his Harmony of the Evangelists. See his works, vol. ii., and the conclusion of this chapter.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I say.

Matthew 5:28,34,44 But I say to you, That whoever looks on a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart...

Matthew 3:17 And see a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

Matthew 17:5 While he yet spoke, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Son...

Deuteronomy 18:18,19 I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brothers, like to you, and will put my words in his mouth...

Acts 3:20-23 And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached to you...

Acts 7:37 This is that Moses, which said to the children of Israel, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up to you of your brothers...

Hebrews 5:9 And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation to all them that obey him;

Hebrews 12:25 See that you refuse not him that speaks. For if they escaped not who refused him that spoke on earth, much more shall not we escape...

That.

Genesis 4:5,6 But to Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell...

Genesis 37:4,8 And when his brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably to him...

1 Samuel 17:27,28 And the people answered him after this manner, saying, So shall it be done to the man that kills him...

1 Samuel 18:8,9 And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he said, They have ascribed to David ten thousands...

1 Samuel 20:30-33 Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, You son of the perverse rebellious woman...

1 Samuel 22:12 And Saul said, Hear now, you son of Ahitub. And he answered, Here I am, my lord.

*etc:

1 Kings 21:4 And Ahab came into his house heavy and displeased because of the word which Naboth the Jezreelite had spoken to him: for he had said...

2 Chronicles 16:10 Then Asa was wroth with the seer, and put him in a prison house; for he was in a rage with him because of this thing...

Esther 3:5,6 And when Haman saw that Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence, then was Haman full of wrath...

Psalm 37:8 Cease from anger, and forsake wrath: fret not yourself in any wise to do evil.

Daniel 2:12,13 For this cause the king was angry and very furious, and commanded to destroy all the wise men of Babylon...

Daniel 3:13,19 Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage and fury commanded to bring Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego...

Ephesians 4:26,27 Be you angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down on your wrath...

his brother.

Matthew 5:23,24 Therefore if you bring your gift to the altar, and there remember that your brother has ought against you...

Matthew 18:21,35 Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times...

Deuteronomy 15:11 For the poor shall never cease out of the land: therefore I command you, saying, You shall open your hand wide to your brother...

Nehemiah 5:8 And I said to them, We after our ability have redeemed our brothers the Jews, which were sold to the heathen...

Obadiah 1:10,12 For your violence against your brother Jacob shame shall cover you, and you shall be cut off for ever...

Romans 12:10 Be kindly affectionate one to another with brotherly love; in honor preferring one another;

1 Corinthians 6:6 But brother goes to law with brother, and that before the unbelievers.

1 Thessalonians 4:6 That no man go beyond and defraud his brother in any matter: because that the Lord is the avenger of all such...

1 John 2:9 He that said he is in the light, and hates his brother, is in darkness even until now.

1 John 3:10,14,15 In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the devil: whoever does not righteousness is not of God...

1 John 4:20,21 If a man say, I love God, and hates his brother, he is a liar: for he that loves not his brother whom he has seen...

1 John 5:16 If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not to death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not to death...

without.

Psalm 7:4 If I have rewarded evil to him that was at peace with me; (yes, I have delivered him that without cause is my enemy:)

Psalm 25:3 Yes, let none that wait on you be ashamed: let them be ashamed which transgress without cause.

Psalm 35:19 Let not them that are my enemies wrongfully rejoice over me: neither let them wink with the eye that hate me without a cause.

Psalm 69:4 They that hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head: they that would destroy me, being my enemies wrongfully...

Psalm 109:3 They compassed me about also with words of hatred; and fought against me without a cause.

Lamentations 3:52 My enemies chased me sore, like a bird, without cause.

John 15:25 But this comes to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause.

be.

Matthew 5:21 You have heard that it was said of them of old time, You shall not kill; and whoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:

the judgment. An inferior court of judicature, in every city, consisting of

23 members, which punished criminals by strangling or beheading.

Whosoever.

Matthew 11:18,19 For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, He has a devil...

Matthew 12:24 But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow does not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils.

1 Samuel 20:30 Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said to him, You son of the perverse rebellious woman...

2 Samuel 16:7 And thus said Shimei when he cursed, Come out, come out, you bloody man, and you man of Belial:

John 7:20 The people answered and said, You have a devil: who goes about to kill you?

John 8:48 Then answered the Jews, and said to him, Say we not well that you are a Samaritan, and have a devil?

Acts 17:18 Then certain philosophers of the Epicureans, and of the Stoicks, encountered him. And some said, What will this babbler say? other some...

1 Corinthians 6:10 Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortionists, shall inherit the kingdom of God.

Ephesians 4:31,32 Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamor, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice...

Titus 3:2 To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, showing all meekness to all men.

1 Peter 2:23 Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judges righteously:

1 Peter 3:9 Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; knowing that you are thereunto called...

Jude 1:9 Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses...

Raca. that is, vain fellow.

2 Samuel 6:20 Then David returned to bless his household. And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said...

James 2:20 But will you know, O vain man, that faith without works is dead?

the council. The Sanhedrin, [sunedrion,] composed of

72 elders, who alone punished by stoning.

Matthew 10:17 But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils, and they will whip you in their synagogues;

Matthew 26:59 Now the chief priests, and elders, and all the council, sought false witness against Jesus, to put him to death;

Mark 14:55 And the chief priests and all the council sought for witness against Jesus to put him to death; and found none.

Mark 15:1 And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus...

John 11:47 Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man does many miracles.

Acts 5:27 And when they had brought them, they set them before the council: and the high priest asked them,

fool.

Psalm 14:1 The fool has said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that does good.

Psalm 49:10 For he sees that wise men die, likewise the fool and the brutish person perish, and leave their wealth to others.

Psalm 92:6 A brutish man knows not; neither does a fool understand this.

Proverbs 14:16 A wise man fears, and departs from evil: but the fool rages, and is confident.

Proverbs 18:6 A fool's lips enter into contention, and his mouth calls for strokes.

Jeremiah 17:11 As the partridge sits on eggs, and hatches them not; so he that gets riches, and not by right...

hell.

Matthew 5:29,30 And if your right eye offend you, pluck it out, and cast it from you...

Matthew 10:28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul...

Matthew 18:8,9 Why if your hand or your foot offend you, cut them off, and cast them from you: it is better for you to enter into life halt or maimed...

Matthew 25:41 Then shall he say also to them on the left hand, Depart from me, you cursed, into everlasting fire...

Mark 9:47 And if your eye offend you, pluck it out: it is better for you to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye...

Luke 12:5 But I will forewarn you whom you shall fear: Fear him, which after he has killed has power to cast into hell; yes, I say to you...

Luke 16:23,24 And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and sees Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom...

Revelation 20:14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.

Library
Agree with Thine Adversary
Eversley, 1861. Windsor Castle, 1867. St. Matthew v. 25, 26. "Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing." This parable our Lord seems to have spoken at least twice, as He did several others. For we find it also in the 12th
Charles Kingsley—All Saints' Day and Other Sermons

Salt Without Savour
'Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.'--MATT. v. 13. These words must have seemed ridiculously presumptuous when they were first spoken, and they have too often seemed mere mockery and irony in the ages since. A Galilean peasant, with a few of his rude countrymen who had gathered round him, stands up there on the mountain, and says to them, 'You,
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

The Lamp and the Bushel
'Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on an hill cannot be hid. 15. Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. 16. Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.'--Matt. v. 14-16. The conception of the office of Christ's disciples contained in these words is a still bolder one than that expressed by the preceding metaphor, which
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

The New Form of the Old Law
'Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. 18. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. 19. Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 20. For I say
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

Cross References
Deuteronomy 16:18
Appoint judges and officials for each of your tribes in every town the LORD your God is giving you, and they shall judge the people fairly.

2 Chronicles 19:5
He appointed judges in the land, in each of the fortified cities of Judah.

Matthew 18:9
And if your eye causes you to stumble, gouge it out and throw it away. It is better for you to enter life with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into the fire of hell.

Matthew 26:59
The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for false evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death.

Mark 9:43
If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off. It is better for you to enter life maimed than with two hands to go into hell, where the fire never goes out.

Mark 9:47
And if your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out. It is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and be thrown into hell,

Mark 14:55
The chief priests and the whole Sanhedrin were looking for evidence against Jesus so that they could put him to death, but they did not find any.

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