1 Samuel 16:5
And he said, Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice to the LORD: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(5) Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice.—The answer at once re-assured the villagers. He had simply come to perform the usual rite of sacrifice among them. The reasons of his coming were unknown, but his mission was one alone of blessing. There was nothing unusual in his sanctifying Jesse and his sons. This was evidently the principal family in the place, and the village sheik and his sons would be the fittest persons to assist in preparing for, and then carrying out, the sacrificial rites.

1 Samuel 16:5. I am come to sacrifice unto the Lord — That was one intention of his coming; and though there was another, namely, to anoint one of Jesse’s sons to be king, he was not bound to declare it. For where there are two ends of any action, a person may, without any injury to truth, declare the one and conceal the other. Thus Moses did when he told Pharaoh they must go and sacrifice to God in the wilderness; but suppressed their intention to march to the land of Canaan. This is set in a clear light by Dr. Waterland: — “As to Samuel pretending a sacrifice, it was a just pretence, and a true one; for he did offer sacrifice, as God had commanded him, 1 Samuel 16:5. And what if he had a further intention? was he bound to declare all he knew, or to disclose to every man the whole of his errand? Secrecy is of great use in all important business; and the concealing one design by going upon another, to prevent giving offence, or doing other worse mischief, is as righteous and as laudable a practice as the drawing a curtain to keep off spies. The making one good design the cover for a better is doing two good things at once; and both in a proper way; and though men have been blamed, and very justly, for using acts of religion as a cloak for iniquity, yet I have never heard that there could be any thing amiss in performing one act of obedience toward God in order to facilitate the performance of another.” — See Scrip. Vind., p. 95.

He sanctified Jesse and his sons — It seems evident that there was something peculiar in Jesse’s invitation. For, first, both he and his sons were invited, whereas the others were only invited for their own persons. Secondly, the different phrase here used, that he sanctified these, when he only bade the others sanctify themselves, argues a singular care of Samuel in their sanctification. Which makes it probable that the rest were only to join with them in the act of sacrificing; but these, and only these, were invited to feast upon the remainders of the sacrifices.16:1-5 It appears that Saul was grown very wicked. Of what would he not be guilty, who durst think to kill Samuel? The elders of Bethlehem trembled at Samuel's coming. It becomes us to stand in awe of God's messengers, and to tremble at his word. His answer was, I come peaceably, for I come to sacrifice. When our Lord Jesus came into the world, though men had reason to fear that his errand was to condemn the world, yet he gave full assurance that he came peaceably, for he came to sacrifice, and he brought his offering with him; A body hast thou prepared me. Let us sanctify ourselves, and depend upon His sacrifice.Trembled - There was evidently something unusual in Samuel's coming to Bethlehem; and the elders, knowing that Samuel was no longer at friendship with Saul, foreboded some evil. 5. sanctify yourselves—by the preparations described (Ex 19:14, 15). The elders were to sanctify themselves. Samuel himself took the greatest care in the sanctification of Jesse's family. Some, however, think that the former were invited only to join in the sacrifice, while the family of Jesse were invited by themselves to the subsequent feast. Sanctify yourselves; prepare yourselves in the manner expressed, Exodus 19:14,15.

To the sacrifice, Heb. in the sacrifice, i.e. join with me in this act of worshipping God, and offering this sacrifice, thereby to give thanks for the blessings you have received from him, and to pray for what you want. It seems evident fiat there was something peculiar in Jesse’s invitation. For, first, Both he and his sons were invited, whereas the others are only invited for their own persons. Secondly, The different phrase here used, that he sanctified these, when he only bade the other sanctify themselves, argues a singular care and agency of Samuel in their sanctification; (unless we should say, He sanctified them, is no more but that he caused them to be sanctified; that is, these in particular amongst others;) which makes it probable that the rest were only to join with him in the act of sacrificing; but these, and only these, were invited to feast upon the remainders of the sacrifice; which feast is here called a sacrifice, as it is above, 1 Samuel 16:3. And the only inconvenience of this interpretation is, that the word sacrifice is taken in different senses in the same verse, which is no unusual thing. See Matthew 8:22. And this difference may possibly be intimated by the differing prepositions prefixed to the same word, the first being bazzabach, and the latter lazzabach. Howsoever, that only Jesse and his sons were present at the feast may seem probable, from Samuel’s design of privacy, and from the following relation. And he said, peaceably I am come to sacrifice unto the Lord,.... Which he could say with truth, it being one end of his coming, though not the only one for which he came, and which he was not obliged to tell:

sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice; prepare themselves for it, which was done by washing their garments, &c. and then attend with him, and assist him in the sacrifice:

and he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice; he ordered them to sanctify themselves; he distinguished them from the rest of the inhabitants, and invited them to partake of the feast, the remainder of the peace offerings.

And he said, Peaceably: I am come to sacrifice unto the LORD: sanctify yourselves, and come with me to the sacrifice. And he sanctified Jesse and his sons, and called them to the sacrifice.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
5. sanctify yourselves] By the usual ceremonial purifications, such as washing the body and clothes, the outward symbols of spiritual preparation. See Genesis 35:2; Exodus 19:10 ff. The Sept. adds, “and rejoice with me this day.”

And he sanctified, &c.] In the case of Jesse’s family Samuel super-intended the necessary purification himself. This gave him the opportunity of a private interview with them in Jesse’s house, at which David’s anointing took place. The sacrifice appears to have followed afterwards.After the prophet had thus maintained the rights of Jehovah in the presence of Saul, and carried out the ban upon Agag, he returned to his own home at Ramah; and Saul went to his house at Gibeah. From that time forward Samuel broke off all intercourse with the king whom Jehovah had rejected. "For Samuel was grieved for Saul, and it repented the Lord that he had made Saul king," i.e., because Samuel had loved Saul on account of his previous election; and yet, as Jehovah had rejected him unconditionally, he felt that he was precluded from doing anything to effect a change of heart in Saul, and his reinstatement as king.
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