2 Kings 8:22
Yet Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah to this day. Then Libnah revolted at the same time.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(22) Yet.—Rather, and (i.e., so).

Unto this day.—Down to the time of composition of the original account from which this epitome is extracted. This notice is borne out by the Assyrian monuments. Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal mention Qa’us-gabrî king of Udumu (Edom), along with Manasseh of Judah, among their tributaries. Esarhaddon also states that his father Sennacherib had reduced “Adumû, a fortified city of Arabia.”

Then Libnah revolted at the same time.—The point of the statement is that the success of Edom encouraged Libnah to throw off the Judæan supremacy. For the locality see Joshua 10:29 seq., Joshua 15:42; Joshua 21:13. Keil thinks the revolt of Libnah coincided with (it was probably supported by) the Philistine invasion recorded in 2Chronicles 21:16, and continued until Uzziah reduced the Philistines (2Chronicles 26:6 seq.). From the time of Hezekiah, Libnah again belonged to Judah (2Kings 19:8; 2Kings 23:31; 2Kings 24:18).

8:16-24 A general idea is given of Jehoram's badness. His father, no doubt, had him taught the true knowledge of the Lord, but did ill to marry him to the daughter of Ahab; no good could come of union with an idolatrous family.Libnah revolted - Libnah being toward the southwest of Palestine Joshua 15:42, its revolt cannot well have had any direct connection with that of Edom. It had been the capital of a small Canaanite state under a separate king before its conquest by Joshua Jos 10:30; Joshua 12:15, and may perhaps always have retained a considerable Canaanite population. Or its loss may have been connected with the attacks made by the Philistines on Jehoram's territories 2 Chronicles 21:16-17. 18. daughter of Ahab—Athaliah, through whose influence Jehoram introduced the worship of Baal and many other evils into the kingdom of Judah (see 2Ch 21:2-20). This apostasy would have led to the total extinction of the royal family in that kingdom, had it not been for the divine promise to David (2Sa 7:16). A national chastisement, however, was inflicted on Judah by the revolt of Edom, which, being hitherto governed by a tributary ruler (2Ki 3:9; 1Ki 22:47), erected the standard of independence (2Ch 21:9). Edom revolted; for though Joram had given them a defeat, yet it may seem to have been no great slaughter, but only a putting them to flight; and therefore they might easily rally again. And Joram could not pursue the victory, because he was recalled by the revolt of his own subjects, which had taken the occasion of his absence, and probably feared that others would follow their example, if they had the like occasion.

Libnah; a considerable city in Judah, belonging to the priests, Joshua 15:42 21:13. Why Libnah revolted, see 2 Chronicles 21:10,11. It is probable they returned to their obedience, because those words, unto this day, which are added to the former clause, are omitted here. Yet Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah unto this day,.... Joram not pursuing the enemy, and taking the advantage of the victory, but returning to his own land, the reason of which follows:

then Libnah revolted at the same time; a considerable city in his own kingdom, a Levitical one; this revolt was occasioned, perhaps, by his idolatrous practices, and which he compelled his subjects to; of this city, see Joshua 10:29.

Yet Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah unto this day. Then {n} Libnah revolted at the same time.

(n) This was a city in Judah given to the Levites, Jos 21:13 that later turned from king Jehoram, because of his idolatry.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
22. Yet [R.V. so] Edom revolted] The conjunction is changed to conform to the rendering in 2 Chronicles 21. As the army of Joram was defeated, the Edomites secured their independence, and that continued till the date of the record from which the compiler of the Kings drew his information. So he copies faithfully ‘unto this day’.

Then Libnah revolted] R.V. did Libnah revolt. The change is in conformity with Chronicles, because of the similarity of the Hebrew. Libnah was situate in the lowland between the mountains of Judah and the Mediterranean coast. It was a strong city with a king when the Israelites took it under Joshua (Joshua 10:29-39). It is mentioned afterwards (2 Kings 19:8) as besieged by Sennacherib. The narrative of the Chronicler adds as the reason of the revolt ‘because he [Joram] had forsaken the Lord the God of his fathers’. The revolt of Libnah does not seem to be connected in any way with that of Edom. The time was opportune and both Edomites and Libnites availed themselves of it.Verse 22. - Yet Edom revolted; rather, and Edom revolted; or, so Edom revolted. Joram's attempt having failed, the independence of the country was established. From under the hand of Judah unto this day. The successes of Amaziah and Azariah against Edom (2 Kings 14:7, 22) did not amount to reconquests. Edom continued a separate country, not subject to Judaea, and frequently at war with it, until the time of John Hyrcanus, by whom it was subjugated. "Unto this day" means, at the most, until the time when the Books of Kings took their present shape, which was before the return from the Captivity. Then Libnah revolted at the same time. Libnah was situated on the borders of Philistia, in the Shefelah, or low country, but towards its eastern edge. Its exact position is uncertain; but it is now generally thought to be identical with the modern Tel-es-Safi, between Gath and Ekron, about long. 34° 50' E., Int. 31° 38' N. It had been an independent city, with a king of its own, in the early Canaanite time (Joshua 10:30; Joshua 12:15), but had been assigned to Judah (Joshua 15:42), and had hitherto remained, so far as appears, contented with its position. Its people can scarcely have had any sympathy with the Edomites, and its revolt at this time can have had no close connection with the Edomite rebellion. Libnah's sympathies would be with Philistia, and the occasion of the revolt may have been the invasion of Judaea by the Philistines in the reign of Jehoram, of which the author of Chronicles speaks (2 Chronicles 21:16), and in which Jehoram's sons were carried off. Reign of Joram of Judah (cf. 2 Chronicles 21:2-20). - Joram became king in the fifth year of Joram of Israel, while Jehoshaphat his father was (still) king, the latter handing over the government to him two years before his death (see at 2 Kings 1:17), and reigned eight years, namely, two years to the death of Jehoshaphat and six years afterwards.

(Note: The words יהוּדה מלך ויהושׁפט have been improperly omitted by the Arabic and Syriac, and by Luther, Dathe, and De Wette from their translations; whilst Schulz, Maurer, Thenius, and others pronounce it a gloss. The genuineness of the words is attested by the lxx (the Edit. Complut. being alone in omitting them) and by the Chaldee: and the rejection of them is just as arbitrary as the interpolation of מת, which is proposed by Kimchi and Ewald ("when Jehoshaphat was dead"). Compare J. Meyer, annotatt. ad Seder Olam, p. 916f.)

The Chethb שׁנה שׁמנה is not to be altered, since the rule that the numbers two to ten take the noun in the plural is not without exception (cf. Ewald, 287, i.).

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