The apostle recommends himself and his brethren to the prayers of the Church, that their preaching might be successful, and that they might be delivered from wicked men, 2 Thessalonians 3:1, 2 Thessalonians 3:2. Expresses his confidence in God and them, and prays that they may patiently wait for the coming of Christ, 2 Thessalonians 3:3-5. Gives them directions concerning strict discipline in the Church; and shows how he and his fellow laborers had behaved among them, not availing themselves of their own power and authority, 2 Thessalonians 3:6-9. Shows them how to treat disorderly and idle people, and not to get weary in well doing, 2 Thessalonians 3:10-13. Directs them not to associate with those who obey not the orders contained in this epistle, 2 Thessalonians 3:14, 2 Thessalonians 3:15, Prays that they may have increasing peace, 16, And concludes with his salutation and benediction, 2 Thessalonians 3:17, 2 Thessalonians 3:18.
Finally, brethren, pray for us, that the word of the Lord may have free course, and be glorified, even as it is with you:Finally, brethren - The words το λοιπον do not mean finally, but, furthermore - to come to a conclusion - what remains is this - I shall only add - any of these phrases expresses the sense of the original.
Pray for us - God, in the order of his grace and providence, has made even the success of his Gospel dependent, in a certain measure, on the prayers of his followers. Why he should do so we cannot tell, but that he has done so we know; and they are not a little criminal who neglect to make fervent supplications for the prosperity of the cause of God.
May have free course - They were to pray that the doctrine of the Lord, ὁ λογος του Κυριου, might run, τρεχῃ, an allusion to the races in the Olympic games: that, as it had already got into the stadium or race course, and had started fairly, so it might run on, get to the goal, and be glorified; i.e., gain the crown, appointed for him that should get first to the end of the course.
And that we may be delivered from unreasonable and wicked men: for all men have not faith.Unreasonable and wicked men - The word ατοπων, which we translate unreasonable, signifies rather disorderly, unmanageable; persons out of their place - under no discipline, regardless of law and restraint, and ever acting agreeably to the disorderly and unreasonable impulse of their own minds.
For all men have not faith - The word πιστις is without doubt, to be taken here for fidelity or trustworthiness, and not for faith; and this is agreeable to the meaning given to it in the very next verse: But the Lord is faithful, πιστος δε εστιν ὁ Κυριος.
There are many, even of those who have received a measure of the Divine light, in whom we cannot confide; they are irregular, disorderly, and cannot be brought under regular discipline: to these we cannot trust either ourselves or any thing that concerns the cause of God. But the Lord is worthy of your whole confidence; doubt him not; he will establish you, and keep you from any evil to which you may be exposed by these or such like persons.
But the Lord is faithful, who shall stablish you, and keep you from evil.From evil - Απο του πονηρου may be translated, from the devil or from the evil one. They had disorderly men, wicked men, and the evil one or the devil, to contend with; God alone could support and give them the victory; he had promised to do it, and he might ever be confided in as being invariably faithful.
And we have confidence in the Lord touching you, that ye both do and will do the things which we command you.And we have confidence - We have no doubt of God's kindness towards you; he loves you, and will support you: and we can confide in you, that ye are now acting as we have desired you, and will continue so to do.
And the Lord direct your hearts into the love of God, and into the patient waiting for Christ.The Lord direct your hearts into the love of God - The love of God is the grand motive and principle of obedience; this must occupy your hearts: the heart is irregular in all its workings; God alone, by his Spirit, can direct it into his love, and keep it right; κατευθυναι, give a proper direction to all its passions, and keep them in order, regularity and purity.
The patience of Christ - Such patience, under all your sufferings and persecutions, as Christ manifested under his. He bore meekly the contradiction of sinners against himself; and when he was reviled, he reviled not again.
Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us.That ye withdraw yourselves - Have no fellowship with those who will not submit to proper discipline; who do not keep their place; ατακτως, such as are out of their rank, and act according to their own wills and caprices; and particularly such as are idle and busybodies. These he had ordered, 1 Thessalonians 4:11, 1 Thessalonians 4:12, that they should study to be quiet, mind their own business, and work with their hands; but it appears that they had paid no attention to this order, and now he desires the Church to exclude such from their communion.
And not after the tradition - This evidently refers to the orders contained in the first epistle; and that first epistle was the tradition which they had received from him. It was, therefore, no unwritten word, no uncertain saying, handed about from one to another; but a part of the revelation which God had given, and which they found in the body of his epistle. These are the only traditions which the Church of God is called to regard.
For yourselves know how ye ought to follow us: for we behaved not ourselves disorderly among you;We behaved not ourselves disorderly - Ουκ ητακτησαμεν· We did not go out of our rank - we kept our place, and discharged all its duties.
Neither did we eat any man's bread for nought; but wrought with labour and travail night and day, that we might not be chargeable to any of you:Neither did we eat any man's bread for naught - We paid for what we bought, and worked with our hands that we might have money to buy what was necessary.
Labour and travail night and day - We were incessantly employed, either in preaching the Gospel, visiting from house to house, or working at our calling. As it is very evident that the Church at Thessalonica was very pious, and most affectionately attached to the apostle, they must have been very poor, seeing he was obliged to work hard to gain himself the necessaries of life. Had they been able to support him he would not have worked with labor and travail night and day, that he might not be burdensome to them; and, as we may presume that they were very poor, he could not have got his support among them without adding to their burdens. To this his generous mind could not submit; it is no wonder, therefore, that he is so severe against those who would not labor, but were a burden to the poor followers of God.
Not because we have not power, but to make ourselves an ensample unto you to follow us.Not because we have not power - We have the power, εξουσιαν, the right, to be maintained by those in whose behalf we labor. The laborer is worthy of his hire, is a maxim universally acknowledged and respected; and they who preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel: the apostle did not claim his privilege, but labored for his own support, that he might be an example to those whom he found otherwise disposed, and that he might spare the poor. See 1 Corinthians 9:1, etc.
For even when we were with you, this we commanded you, that if any would not work, neither should he eat.If any would not work, neither should he eat - This is a just maxim, and universal nature inculcates it to man. If man will work, he may eat; if he do not work, he neither can eat, nor should he eat. The maxim is founded on these words of the Lord: In the sweat of thy brow thou shall eat bread. Industry is crowned with God's blessing; idleness is loaded with his curse. This maxim was a proverb among the Jews. Men who can work, and will rather support themselves by begging, should not get one morsel of bread. It is a sin to minister to necessities that are merely artificial.
For we hear that there are some which walk among you disorderly, working not at all, but are busybodies.For we hear that there are some - It is very likely that St. Paul kept up some sort of correspondence with the Thessalonian Church; for he had heard every thing that concerned their state, and it was from this information that he wrote his second epistle.
Disorderly - Ατακτως· Out of their rank - not keeping their own place.
Working not at all - Either lounging at home, or becoming religious gossips; μηδεν εργαζομενους, doing nothing.
Busybodies - Περιεργαζομενους· Doing every thing they should not do - impertinent meddlers with other people's business; prying into other people's circumstances and domestic affairs; magnifying or minifying, mistaking or underrating, every thing; newsmongers and telltales; an abominable race, the curse of every neighborhood where they live, and a pest to religious society. There is a fine paronomasia in the above words, and evidently intended by the apostle.
Now them that are such we command and exhort by our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, and eat their own bread.With quietness they work - Μετα ἡσυχιας· With silence; leaving their tale-bearing and officious intermeddling. Less noise and more work!
That - they work, and eat their own bread - Their own bread, because earned by their own honest industry. What a degrading thing to live on the bounty or mercy of another, while a man is able to acquire his own livelihood! He who can submit to this has lost the spirit of independence; and has in him a beggar's heart, and is capable of nothing but base and beggarly actions. Witness the great mass of the people of England, who by their dependence on the poor rates are, from being laborious, independent, and respect able, become idle, profligate, and knavish; the propagators and perpetrators of crime; a discredit to the nation, and a curse to society. The apostle's command is a cure for such; and the Church of God should discountenance such, and disown them.
But ye, brethren, be not weary in well doing.Be not weary in well-doing - While ye stretch out no hand of relief to the indolent and lazy, do not forget the real poor - the genuine representatives of an impoverished Christ; and rather relieve a hundred undeserving objects, than pass by one who is a real object of charity.
And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed.If any man obey not - They had disobeyed his word in the first epistle, and the Church still continued to bear with them; now he tells the Church, if they still continue to disregard what is said to them, and particularly his word by this second epistle, they are to mark them as being totally incorrigible, and have no fellowship with them.
Some construe the words δια της επιστολης with τουτον σημειουσθε· Give me information of that man by a letter - let me hear of his continued obstinacy, and send me his name. This was probably in order to excommunicate him, and deliver him over to Satan for the destruction of the body, that the spirit might be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. The words of the original will bear either construction, that in the text, or that given above.
Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother.Count him not as an enemy - Consider him still more an enemy to himself than to you; and admonish him as a brother, though you have ceased to hold religious communion with him. His soul is still of infinite value; labor to get it saved.
Now the Lord of peace himself give you peace always by all means. The Lord be with you all.The Lord of peace - Jesus Christ, who is called our peace, Ephesians 2:14; and The Prince of peace, Isaiah 9:6. May he give you peace, for he is the Fountain and Dispenser of it.
Always - Both in your own consciences, and among yourselves.
By all means - Παντι τροπῳ· By all means, methods, occasions, instruments, and occurrences; peace or prosperity in every form and shape.
Instead of εν παντι τροπῳ, in every way, etc., εν παντι τοπῳ, in every place, is the reading of A*D*FG, some others; with the Vulgate and Itala. Chrysostom, Ambrosiaster, Augustine, and others, have the same reading: May God grant you prosperity always, and everywhere.
The Lord be with you all - This is agreeable to the promise of our Lord: Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world; Matthew 28:20. May the Lord, who has promised to be always with his true disciples, be with you! Christians are the temple of God, and the temple of God has the Divine presence in it. May you ever continue to be his Church, that the Lord God may dwell among you!
The salutation of Paul with mine own hand, which is the token in every epistle: so I write.The salutation of Paul with mine own hand - It is very likely that Paul employed an amanuensis generally, either to write what he dictated, or to make a fair copy of what he wrote. In either case the apostle always subscribed it, and wrote the salutation and benediction with his own hand; and this was what authenticated all his epistles. A measure of this kind would be very necessary if forged epistles were carried about in those times. See the note on 1 Corinthians 16:21, and see Colossians 4:18 (note).
The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.The grace - The favor, blessing, and influence of our Lord Jesus Christ, be with you all - be your constant companion. May you ever feel his presence, and enjoy his benediction!
Amen - So let be! God grant it! This word in this place, has more evidence in favor of its genuineness than it has in most other places; and was probably added here by the apostle himself, or by the Church of the Thessalonians.
The subscriptions to this epistle are various in the MSS. and Versions. The latter are as follows: -
The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians was written from Athens. - Common Greek text.
The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, which was written at Laodicea in Pisidia, was sent by the hands of Tychicus. - Syriac.
The end of the Epistle; and it was written at Athens. - Arabic.
To the Thessalonians. - Aethiopic.
Written from Athens, and sent by Silvanus and Timotheus. - Coptic.
No subscription in the Vulgate.
Written at Corinth. - Author of the Synopsis.
- sent by Titus and Onesimus. - Latin Prologue.
The Second Epistle to the Thessalonians, written from Rome. - No. 71, a MS. of the Vatican library, written about the eleventh century.
The chief of the MSS. either have no subscription, or agree with some of the above versions.
That the epistle was neither written at Athens, Laodicea, nor Rome, has been sufficiently proved; and that it was written, as well as the first, at Corinth, is extremely probable. See the preface, and what has been said on the preceding epistle.
I have often had occasion to observe that the subscriptions at the end of the sacred books are not of Divine origin; they are generally false; and yet some have quoted them as making a part of the sacred test, and have adduced them in support of some favourite opinions.
Finished correcting this epistle for a new edition, the shortest day in 1831. - A. C.