Deuteronomy 18:19
And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.
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18:15-22 It is here promised concerning Christ, that there should come a Prophet, great above all the prophets; by whom God would make known himself and his will to the children of men, more fully and clearly than he had ever done before. He is the Light of the world, Joh 8:12. He is the World by whom God speaks to us, Joh 1:1; Heb 1:2. In his birth he should be one of their nation. In his resurrection he should be raised up at Jerusalem, and from thence his doctrine should go forth to all the world. Thus God, having raised up his Son Christ Jesus, sent him to bless us. He should be like unto Moses, only above him. This prophet is come, even JESUS; and is He that should come, and we are to look for no other. The view of God which he gives, will not terrify or overwhelm, but encourages us. He speaks with fatherly affection and Divine authority united. Whoever refuses to listen to Jesus Christ, shall find it is at his peril; the same that is the Prophet is to be his Judge, Joh 12:48. Woe then to those who refuse to hearken to His voice, to accept His salvation, or yield obedience to His sway! But happy they who trust in Him, and obey Him. He will lead them in the paths of safety and peace, until He brings them to the land of perfect light, purity, and happiness. Here is a caution against false prophets. It highly concerns us to have a right touchstone wherewith to try the word we hear, that we may know what that word is which the Lord has not spoken. Whatever is against the plain sense of the written word, or which gives countenance or encouragement to sin, we may be sure is not that which the Lord has spoken.The ancient fathers of the Church and the generality of modern commentators have regarded our Lord as the prophet promised in these verses. It is evident from the New Testament alone that the Messianic was the accredited interpretation among the Jews at the beginning of the Christian era (compare the marginal references, and John 4:25); nor can our Lord Himself, when He declares that Moses "wrote of Him" John 5:45-47, be supposed to have any other words more directly in view than these, the only words in which Moses, speaking in his own person, gives any prediction of the kind. But the verses seem to have a further, no less evident if subsidiary, reference to a prophetical order which should stand from time to time, as Moses had done, between God and the people; which should make known God's will to the latter; which should by its presence render it unnecessary either that God should address the people directly, as at Sinai (Deuteronomy 18:16; compare Deuteronomy 5:25 ff), or that the people themselves in lack of counsel should resort to the superstitions of the pagan.

In fact, in the words before us, Moses gives promise both of a prophetic order, and of the Messiah in particular as its chief; of a line of prophets culminating in one eminent individual. And in proportion as we see in our Lord the characteristics of the prophet most perfectly exhibited, so must we regard the promise of Moses as in Him most completely accomplished.

19. whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him—The direful consequences of unbelief in Christ, and disregard of His mission, the Jewish people have been experiencing during eighteen hundred years. i.e. I will punish him severely for it, as this phrase is taken, Genesis 9:5 42:22. The sad effect of this threatening the Jews have felt for above sixteen hundred years together.

And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words,.... To the doctrines of the Gospel, but slight and despise them:

which he shall speak in my name; in whose name he came, and whose words or doctrines he declared them to be; not as his own, but his Father's, John 5:43.

I will require it of him; or, as the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan,"my Word shall require it of him, or take vengeance on him;''as Christ the Word of God did in the destruction of the Jewish nation, city, and temple; see Luke 19:27.

And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will {i} require it of him.

(i) By executing punishment on him.

19. whosoever will not hearken … I will require it of him] Cp. the confidence of Jeremiah 26:12-15; Jeremiah 29:8 f., Jeremiah 29:18 ff. (the punishment exacted for not hearkening to God’s word), Jeremiah 35:13 ff. LXX B omits my words; Sam. LXX most codd. his words. Require, darash, Jeremiah 23:21 (22).

Verses 19-22. - To the Prophet who should thus speak to the people all that God should command him, they were to pay the utmost deference, and to his words they were to render implicit obedience. Verse 19. - I will require it of him; I will judge him and punish his disobedience (cf. Genesis 42:22; 2 Samuel 4:11; Psalm 10:13, etc.). Deuteronomy 18:19With this assurance the Lord had fully granted the request of the people, "according to all that thou desiredst of the Lord thy God;" and Israel, therefore, was all the more bound to hearken to the prophets, whom God would raise up from the midst of itself, and not to resort to heathen soothsayers. (On the fact itself, comp. Deuteronomy 5:20. with Exodus 20:15-17.) "In the day of the assembly," as in Deuteronomy 9:10; Deuteronomy 10:4. - The instructions as to their behaviour towards the prophets are given by Moses (Deuteronomy 18:19, Deuteronomy 18:20) in the name of the Lord, for the purpose of enforcing obedience with all the greater emphasis. Whoever did not hearken to the words of the prophet who spoke in the name of the Lord, of him the Lord would require it, i.e., visit the disobedience with punishment (cf. Psalm 10:4, Psalm 10:13). On the other hand, the prophet who spoke in the name of the Lord what the Lord had not commanded him, i.e., proclaimed the thoughts of his own heart as divine revelations (cf. Numbers 16:28), should die, like the prophet who spoke in the name of other gods. With וּמת, the predicate is introduced in the form of an apodosis.
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