Jeremiah 30:9
But they shall serve the LORD their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them.
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(9) David their king . . .—The name of the old hero-king appears as that of the new representative of the house who is to restore the kingdom. There is to be a second David for Israel, a true king answering to the ideal which he imperfectly represented. Zerubbabel, in whom some interpreters have seen the fulfilment of Jeremiah’s words, was, in his measure, another partial representative of such a king (Haggai 2:21-23). The same mode of speech appears in Hosea 3:5, Isa. Leviticus , 4, and was probably deliberately reproduced by Jeremiah.

30:1-11 Jeremiah is to write what God had spoken to him. The very words are such as the Holy Ghost teaches. These are the words God ordered to be written; and promises written by his order, are truly his word. He must write a description of the trouble the people were now in, and were likely to be in. A happy end should be put to these calamities. Though the afflictions of the church may last long, they shall not last always. The Jews shall be restored again. They shall obey, or hearken to the Messiah, the Christ, the Son of David, their King. The deliverance of the Jews from Babylon, is pointed out in the prophecy, but the restoration and happy state of Israel and Judah, when converted to Christ their King, are foretold; also the miseries of the nations before the coming of Christ. All men must honour the Son as they honour the Father, and come into the service and worship of God by him. Our gracious Lord pardons the sins of the believer, and breaks off the yoke of sin and Satan, that he may serve God without fear, in righteousness and true holiness before him all the remainder of his days, as the redeemed subject of Christ our King.David their king - See Jeremiah 23:5-6; i. e., Messiah. 9. Instead of serving strangers (Jer 30:8), they shall serve the Lord, their rightful King in the theocracy (Eze 21:27).

David, their king—No king of David's seed has held the scepter since the captivity; for Zerubbabel, though of David's line, never claimed the title of "king." The Son of David, Messiah, must therefore be meant; so the Targum (compare Isa 55:3, 4; Eze 34:23, 24; 37:24; Ho 3:5; Ro 11:25-32). He was appointed to the throne of David (Isa 9:7; Lu 1:32). He is here joined with Jehovah as claiming equal allegiance. God is our "King," only when we are subject to Christ; God rules us not immediately, but through His Son (Joh 5:22, 23, 27).

raise up—applied to the judges whom God raised up as deliverers of Israel out of the hand of its oppressors (Jud 2:16; 3:9). So Christ was raised up as the antitypical Deliverer (Ps 2:6; Lu 1:69; Ac 2:30; 13:23).

Who is here meant by David is not well agreed. Some think this promise was fulfilled in the rule of Zorobabel, and those after the captivity of Babylon, of the family of David, who ruled over the Jews, though not under the style of kings; others think that Christ is intended, as in the other parallel prophecies, Ezekiel 34:23 37:22 Hosea 3:5, and that the deliverance here promised was spiritual; and indeed unless we so understand it, it will be hard to assign a time when the promise of the former and this verse was made good, for upon the return from the captivity to the coming of Christ, and from his time to this day, other nations have served themselves upon the Jews, and they have been in perpetual servitude, first to the Persians, then to the Grecians, then to the Romans, in servitude to whom they were at the coming of Christ, and soon after miserably subdued by them, and since that time almost all nations have served themselves of the Jews. Either therefore this prophecy must be understood in a spiritual sense of the kingdom of Christ, under which the Jews that received him were made spiritually free; or else there is a time yet to come, when this ancient people of God shall be restored to a further civil liberty than they have enjoyed ever since the captivity of Babylon, and be more fully converted to Christ than they yet are; towards which sense many texts of Scripture, besides this, look; particularly Romans 11:25,26.

But they shall serve the Lord their God,.... And him only, in a spiritual manner, in righteousness and true holiness, with reverence and godly fear; having respect to all his precepts and ordinances, and every branch of religious worship; joining themselves to Gospel churches, and worshipping along with them, before them, and in the midst of them; see Revelation 3:9;

and David their king; not literally, who shall be raised up from the dead, and reign over them, which Kimchi supposes possible, though he does not assert it; nor his successors called by his name, as the kings of Egypt were called Pharaohs and Ptolemies, and the Roman emperors Caesars, of which we have no instance; nor were there any kings of David's line upon the throne of Israel after the Babylonish captivity, until the Messiah came, and who is the Person here meant; and so the Targum paraphrases it,

"and they shall hearken to, or obey, Messiah the son of David their king;''

and Kimchi owns that it may be interpreted of Messiah the son of David, whose name is called David, as it is in many prophecies, Ezekiel 34:23; and this prophecy is understood of the Messiah by several Jewish writers (s); and in the Talmud (t) it is said,

"the holy blessed God will raise up unto thee another David; as it is said, "and they shall serve the Lord their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them"; it is not said, "he hath raised up", but "I will raise up";''

and Christ is called David, not only because he is his son, but because he is his antitype. David was a type of Christ in his birth and parentage; the son of Jesse, born of mean parents, and at Bethlehem; in his outward form, ruddy and beautiful; in his inward character, a man of holiness, wisdom, and courage; in his offices of shepherd, prophet, and king; in his afflictions and sorrows, and in his wars and victories. The same Person is here meant as in the former clause, "the Lord their God"; since it is Jehovah that is here speaking; and he does not say "they shall serve me", but "the Lord their God"; and since the same service is to be yielded to David as to the Lord their God; and who is, in his divine nature, the Lord God, and so the object of all religious worship and service; and, in his human nature, of the seed of David; and by office a King, appointed by his Father, and owned by his people, as King of saints; so the words may be rendered, "they shall serve the Lord their God, even David their King"; see Titus 2:13;

whom I will raise up unto them; which is said of him in all his offices, Jeremiah 23:5; and is expressive of his constitution as Mediator; and includes the Father's pitching upon him, appointing him, calling him, fitting and qualifying him, and sending him in the fulness of time, under this character, as a Mediator, Redeemer, and Saviour; all which was for the good of his people; as a favour to them, for their profit and advantage: his incarnation is for them; his obedience, sufferings, and death; his righteousness, and the salvation he wrought out; he is raised up, and sent to them to bless them, with all spiritual blessings that are in him, Acts 3:26.

(s) R. Albo in Sepher lkkarim, l. 2. c. 28. Abarbinel in loc. & in Mashmiah Jeshuab, fol. 35. 4. (t) T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 98. 2.

But they shall serve the LORD their God, and {g} David their king, whom I will raise up to them.

(g) That is, Messiah who would come of the stock of David according to the flesh and would be the true pastor, Eze 34:23 who is set forth and his kingdom would be everlasting in the person of David, Ho 3:5.

9. the Lord their God, and David their king] For the whole expression as uniting Jehovah and the Messiah, cp. Hosea 3:5, and for the Messiah spoken of elsewhere also under the name David, Ezekiel 34:23 f., Ezekiel 37:24 f.

Verse 9. - David their king; viz. the "righteous Branch" or "Plant" of ch. 23:5. Jeremiah 30:9Then Israel will no longer serve strangers, i.e., foreign rulers who are heathens, but their God Jahveh, and David the king who will be raised up to them, i.e., the Messiah, the righteous sprout that Jahveh will raise up to David; cf. Jeremiah 23:5. The designation of this sprout as "David their king," i.e., the king of the Israelites, points us back to Hosea 3:5.
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