Vincent's Word Studies
For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.
Our earthly house of this tabernacle (ἡ ἐπίγειος ἡμῶν οἰκία τοῦ σκήνους)
Earthly, not, made of earth, which would be χοΐ́κός as 1 Corinthians 15:47; but upon the earth, terrestrial, as 1 Corinthians 15:40; Philippians 2:10. Tabernacle (σκῆνος) tent or hut. In later writers, especially the Platonists, Pythagoreans, and medical authors, used to denote the body. Thus Hippocrates: "A great vein by which the whole body (σκῆνος) is nourished." Some expositors think that Paul uses the word here simply in this sense - the house which is the body. But while Paul does mean the body, he preserves the figurative sense of the word tabernacle; for he never uses this term elsewhere as synonymous with the body. The figure of the tent suits the contrast with the building, and would naturally suggest itself to the tent-maker. The phrase earthly house of the tabernacle expresses a single conception - the dwelling which is, or consists in the tabernacle, the tent-house. The transient character of the body is thus indicated. Compare houses of clay, Job 4:19. See on the kindred words σκήνωμα tabernacle, 2 Peter 1:13; and σκηνόω to dwell in or to fix a tabernacle, John 1:14. Tabernacle is so habitually associated with a house of worship, and is so often applied to durable structures, that the original sense of a tent is in danger of being lost. It would be better to translate here by tent. The word tabernacle is a diminutive of the Latin taberna a hut or shed, which appears in tavern. Its root is ta, tan, to stretch or spread out.
Lit., loosened down. Appropriate to taking down a tent. See on Mark 13:2; see on Luke 9:12; see on Acts 5:38; and compare 2 Peter 3:11, 2 Peter 3:12, and the figure of the parting of the silver cord on which the lamp is suspended, Ecclesiastes 12:6. Also Job 4:21, where the correct rendering is: Is not their tent-cord plucked up within them? So Rev. O.T.
The building from God is an actual possession in virtue of the believer's union with Christ. It is just as we say of a minor, before he comes into possession of his property, that he has so much. Compare Matthew 19:21.
Building of God (οἰκοδομὴν ἐκ Θεοῦ)
In contrast with tent. The reference is to the resurrection body. Compare the city which hath the foundations, Hebrews 11:10. For of God, read, as Rev., from, God; proceeding from (ἐκ) Heinrici, von Gott her: compare God giveth, 1 Corinthians 15:38, and ἔχετε ἀπὸ Θεοῦ ye have from God, where the reference is to the natural body, 1 Corinthians 6:19. Construe from God with building, not with we have.
In the heavens
Construe with we have.
For in this we groan, earnestly desiring to be clothed upon with our house which is from heaven:
Tabernacle. As if pointing to his own body. See on 1 Corinthians 15:54.
Earnestly desiring (ἐπιποθοῦντες)
The participle has an explanatory force, as Acts 27:7, "because the wind did not suffer us." We groan because we long. Rev., longing. The compounded preposition ἐπί does not mark the intensity of the desire, but its direction.
To be clothed upon (ἐπενδύσασθαι)
Only here and 2 Corinthians 5:4. Compare ἐπενδύτης fisher's coat, John 21:7 (see note). Lit., to put on over. The metaphor changes from building to clothing, a natural transformation in the mind of Paul, to whom the hail-cloth woven for tents would suggest a vesture.
Not οἰκία house, as 2 Corinthians 5:1. This word regards the house with special reference to its inhabitant. The figure links itself with building, 2 Corinthians 5:1, as contrasted with the unstable tent.
From heaven (ἐξ οὐρανοῦ)
As from God, 2 Corinthians 5:1.
If so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked.
If so be (εἴ γε)
Compare Job 10:11.
Without a body. The word was used by Greek writers of disembodied spirits. See the quotation from Plato's "Gorgias" in note on Luke 12:20; also "Cratylus," 403, where, speaking of Pluto, Socrates says: "The foolish fears which people have of him, such as the fear of being always with him after death, and of the soul denuded (γυμνὴ) of the body going to him." Stanley cites Herodotus' story of Melissa, the Corinthian queen, who appeared to her husband after death, entreating him to burn dresses for her as a covering for her disembodied spirit (v., 92). The whole expression, being clothed - naked is equivalent to we shall not be found naked because we shall be clothed.
For we that are in this tabernacle do groan, being burdened: not for that we would be unclothed, but clothed upon, that mortality might be swallowed up of life.
Being burdened (βαρούμενοι)
Compare weight (βάρος) of glory, 2 Corinthians 4:17.
Not for that we would be unclothed (ἐφ' ᾧ οὐ θέλομεν ἐκδύσασθαι)
Lit., because we are not willing to divest ourselves (of the mortal body). Regarding the coming of the Lord as near, the apostle contemplates the possibility of living to behold it. The oppression of soul (groan) is not from pains and afflictions of the body, nor from the fear of death, but from the natural shrinking from death, especially if death is to deprive him of the body (unclothe) only to leave him without a new and higher organism. Therefore he desires, instead of dying, to have the new being come down upon him while still alive, investing him with the new spiritual organism (clothed upon), as a new garment is thrown over an old one, and absorbing (swallowed up) the old, sensuous life.
"For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey,
This pleadng anxious being e'er resigned,
Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day,
Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind?"
A new metaphor. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:54.
Now he that hath wrought us for the selfsame thing is God, who also hath given unto us the earnest of the Spirit.
The compound is significant, indicating an accomplished fact. Through the various operations of His Spirit and the processes of His discipline, God has worked us out (Stanley, worked up) for this change. The process includes the dissolution of what is mortal no less than the renewal. The one is a step to the other. See 1 Corinthians 15:36.
Earnest of the Spirit
Therefore we are always confident, knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord:
At home (ἐνδημοῦντες)
Ἑν in, δῆμος people. Only in this chapter. To be among one's own people, and not to travel abroad.
We are absent (ἐκδημοῦμεν)
(For we walk by faith, not by sight:)
By sight (διὰ εἴδους)
The correct rendering is appearance. The word is not used actively in the sense of vision. Faith is contrasted with the actual appearance of heavenly things. Hence the marginal reading of the Rev. should go into the text.
We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.
Are willing (εὐδοκοῦμεν)
The translation might well be made stronger as well as more literal: we are well-pleased.
To be absent - present (ἐκδημῆσαι - ἐνδημῆσαι)
The same verbs as in 2 Corinthians 5:6 : to be from home, at home.
Wherefore we labour, that, whether present or absent, we may be accepted of him.
We labor (φιλοτιμούμεθα)
Used by Paul only, here, Romans 15:20 (note), 1 Thessalonians 4:11. Labor is a feeble translation, not bringing out the idea of the end contemplated, as the motive of the toil. Rev., we make it our aim.
For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.
Rev., better, be made manifest. Appear is not strong enough, since it implies only presence at the judgment-seat. The important fact is our being revealed as we are.
Judgment seat (βήματος)
See on Acts 7:5.
May receive (κομίσηται)
In the body (διά)
Lit., through the body as a medium.
See on James 3:16.
Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God; and I trust also are made manifest in your consciences.
Terror of the Lord (φόβον τοῦ Κυρίου)
Rev., better, the fear of the Lord. Not that which is terrible in the Lord, but being conscious of fearing the Lord.
We persuade (πείθομεν)
Convince of our integrity.
For we commend not ourselves again unto you, but give you occasion to glory on our behalf, that ye may have somewhat to answer them which glory in appearance, and not in heart.
For whether we be beside ourselves, it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for your cause.
We are beside ourselves (ἐξέστημεν)
For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead:
The love of Christ
Christ's love to men. See on 1 John 2:5.
See on taken, Luke 4:38; see on Acts 18:5. It is the word rendered I am in a strait, Philippians 1:23. Compare Luke 12:50. The idea is not urging or driving, but shutting up to one line and purpose, as in a narrow, walled road.
And that he died for all, that they which live should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him which died for them, and rose again.
Wherefore henceforth know we no man after the flesh: yea, though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth know we him no more.
After the flesh (κατὰ σάρκα)
"He who knows no man after the flesh, has, for example, in the case of the Jew, entirely lost sight of his Jewish origin; in that of the rich man, of his riches; in that of the learned of his learning; in that of the slave, of his servitude" (Alford). Compare Galatians 3:28.
Yea though (εἰ καὶ)
Not with a climactic force, as A.V., and not with the emphasis on Christ, but on have known. The proper sense will be brought out in reading by emphasizing have. We know no man henceforth after the flesh: even if we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now, etc. Paul refers to his knowledge of Christ before his conversion, a hearsay knowledge, confined to reports of His personal appearance, His deeds, His relations to the Jews, His alleged crime and punishment. When the glorified Christ first spoke to him out of heaven, he asked, "Who art thou?" Compare to reveal His Son in me, Galatians 1:16.
Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.
A new creature (καινὴ κτίσις)
Or creation. Compare Galatians 6:15. The word κτίσις is used in three senses in the New Testament. The act of creating, as Romans 1:20. The sum of created things, as Revelation 3:14; Mark 13:19. A created thing or creature, as Romans 8:39. The Rabbins used the word of a man converted from idolatry. "He who brings a foreigner and makes him a proselyte is as if he created him."
Old things (τὰ ἀρχαῖα)
Passed away (παρῆλθεν)
As if contemplating a rapidly shifting scene. As in a flash, old things vanish, and all things become new.
And all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ, and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation;
Better, Rev., but; as if anticipating a possible failure to discern the primary agency of God in this moral transformation. All things - all that are involved in this mighty change - are from God.
God is the prime-mover in the work of reconciliation. See on Romans 5:10, through Christ, as the medium.
To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation.
Emphatic. It was God, as in 2 Corinthians 5:18.
Was - reconciling (ἦν καταλλάσσων)
These words are to be construed together; the participle with the finite verb marking the process of reconciliation. The emphasis is on the fact that God was reconciling, not on the fact that God was in Christ. God was all through and behind the process of reconciliation. The primary reference of the statement is, no doubt, to God's reconciling manifestation in the incarnation and death of Christ; yet, as a fact, it includes much more. God was engaged in reconciling the world from the very beginning, and that in Christ. See on John 1:4, John 1:5, John 1:9, John 1:10.
Hath given to us (θέμενος ἐν ἡμῖν)
Lit., lodged in us.
Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us: we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God.
We are ambassadors (πρεσβεύομεν)
Only here and Ephesians 6:10.
For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.
Omit. It is a later addition, in order to soften the abruptness of the following clauses.
Made to be sin (ἁμαρτίαν ἐποίησεν)
Compare a curse, Galatians 3:13. Not a sin-offering, nor a sinner, but the representative of sin. On Him, representatively, fell the collective consequence of sin, in His enduring "the contradiction of sinners against Himself" (Hebrews 12:3), in His agony in the garden, and in His death on the cross.
Who knew no sin (τὸν μὴ γνόντα ἁμαρτίαν)
Alluding to Christ's own consciousness of sinlessness, not to God's estimate of Him. The manner in which this reference is conveyed, it is almost impossible to explain to one unfamiliar with the distinction between the Greek negative particles. The one used here implies the fact of sinlessness as present to the consciousness of the person concerning whom the fact is stated. Compare John 8:46.