Vincent's Word Studies
After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill him.
Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at hand.
The Jews' feast of tabernacles
The Rev. brings out the defining force of the two articles: the feast of the Jews, the feast of tabernacles. This feast occurred in the early autumn (September or early October), and lasted for seven days. Its observance is commanded in Exodus 23:16; Exodus 34:22; Leviticus 23:39, Leviticus 23:42, Leviticus 23:43; Deuteronomy 16:13. Its significance was twofold. It was a harvest-home festival, and hence was called the Feast of Ingathering, and it comememorated the dwelling of Israel in tents or booths in the wilderness. Hence the name Feast of Booths or Tabernacles. The association of the latter event with harvest was designed to remind the people in their prosperity of the days of their homeless wandering, that their hearts might not be lifted up and forget God, who delivered them from bondage (Deuteronomy 8:12-17). Therefore they were commanded to quit their permanent homes and to dwell in booths at the time of harvest. The festival was also known as the Feast of Jehovah, or simply the Festival (Leviticus 23:39; 1 Kings 8:2), because of its importance, and of being the most joyful of all festivals. At the celebration of the feast at Jerusalem booths were erected in the streets and squares and on the housetops. The Greek word for this feast, σκηνοπηγία, construction of tabernacles, occurs only here in the New Testament.
His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judaea, that thy disciples also may see the works that thou doest.
Both those who had been gained by former teaching in Judaea and Jerusalem, and others from other parts.
For there is no man that doeth any thing in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. If thou do these things, shew thyself to the world.
Openly (ἐν παῤῥησίᾳ)
Literally, in boldness. The reasoning is: no man can assert the position which Christ claims, and at the same time keep secret the works which go to vindicate it.
For neither did his brethren believe in him.
Better, as Rev., not even.
Did believe (ἐπίστευον)
The imperfect, were believing; referring not to a single act of faith, but to faith as habitual and controlling.
Then Jesus said unto them, My time is not yet come: but your time is alway ready.
The disciples might at any time associate with the world, with which they were still in sympathy. Not so Jesus, who was in essential antagonism to the world.
The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil.
Go ye up unto this feast: I go not up yet unto this feast; for my time is not yet full come.
For this, read the, the first time, but not the second.
Full come (πεπλήρωται)
Literally, has been fulfilled. So Rev., is not yet fulfilled.
When he had said these words unto them, he abode still in Galilee.
But when his brethren were gone up, then went he also up unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret.
Then the Jews sought him at the feast, and said, Where is he?
Better, therefore; because He did not come up with the Galilaeans.
The imperfect: kept seeking; persistently sought for Him.
Emphatic: that one of whom we have heard, and whom we once saw.
And there was much murmuring among the people concerning him: for some said, He is a good man: others said, Nay; but he deceiveth the people.
See on John 6:41.
The people (τοῖς ὄχλοις)
See on John 1:19.
Imperfect: were saying.
Rev., better, leadeth astray. See on Mark 12:24; see on Jde 1:13.
Howbeit no man spake openly of him for fear of the Jews.
Now about the midst of the feast Jesus went up into the temple, and taught.
About the midst of the feast (τῆς ἑορτῆς μεσούσης)
A peculiar form of expression found only here. The midst is expressed by a participle from the verb μεσόω, to be in the middle. Literally, the feast being midway.
Or began to teach. Imperfect tense.
And the Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters, having never learned?
See on John 5:47.
Jesus answered them, and said, My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me.
Better, teaching, as Rev. Doctrine has acquired a conventional sense which might mislead.
If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself.
Will do his will (θέλῃ τὸ θέλημα αὐτοῦ ποιεῖν)
This is a notable illustration of the frequent blunder of the A.V. in rendering θέλειν, to will or determine, as a mere auxiliary verb. By overlooking the distinct meaning of the verb to will, and resolving willeth to do into will do, it sacrifices the real force of the passage. Jesus says, if it be one's will to do; if his moral purpose is in sympathy with the divine will.
He shall know
Sympathy with the will of God is a condition of understanding it.
Of God (ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ)
Better, from; proceeding out of.
Of myself (ἀπ' ἐμαυτοῦ)
Of myself is misleading, being commonly understood to mean concerning myself. Rev., correctly, from myself; without union with the Father. Compare John 5:30.
He that speaketh of himself seeketh his own glory: but he that seeketh his glory that sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him.
His own glory (τὴν δόξαν τὴν ἰδίαν)
The same (οὖτος)
Notice the characteristic use of the pronoun taking up and emphasizing the principal subject of the sentence.
See on 2 Peter 2:13.
Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keepeth the law? Why go ye about to kill me?
Did - give (δέδωκεν)
Some texts read the aorist tense ἔδωκεν, in which case this rendering is correct. If with others we read the perfect, we should render hath not Moses given you the law, which you still profess to observe.
Rev., rightly, doeth. Compare do in John 7:17.
Go ye about (ζητεῖτε)
Properly, seek ye. So Rev.
The people answered and said, Thou hast a devil: who goeth about to kill thee?
A devil (δαιμόνιον)
Or more correctly, a demon. See on Mark 1:34. The name was applied to Jesus by the multitude (ὄχλος) and not by those whom He was addressing in John 7:19, because of the gloomy suspicions which they thought He entertained, and in entire ignorance of the design of the Jews which Jesus had penetrated. The same term was applied to John the Baptist, the ascetic, as one who withdrew from social intercourse (Matthew 11:18).
Jesus answered and said unto them, I have done one work, and ye all marvel.
One work (ἓν ἔργον)
The healing on the Sabbath (John 5:1-8).
Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision; (not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers;) and ye on the sabbath day circumcise a man.
If a man on the sabbath day receive circumcision, that the law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I have made a man every whit whole on the sabbath day?
Are ye angry (χολᾶτε)
Only here in the New Testament. From χολή, gall. Strictly, the verb means to be full of bile, hence to be melancholy mad.
Every whit whole (ὅλον ὑγιῆ)
Strictly, I made a whole man sound, in contrast with the rite of circumcision which affects only a single member, but which, nevertheless, they practice on the Sabbath.
Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment.
Righteous judgment (τὴν δικαίαν κρίσιν)
Properly, the righteous judgment; that which is appropriate to the case in hand.
Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this he, whom they seek to kill?
Them of Jerusalem (Ἱεροσολυμιτῶν)
Literally, of the Jerusalemites, who knew better than the multitude the designs of the priesthood. The word occurs only here and Mark 1:5.
But, lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say nothing unto him. Do the rulers know indeed that this is the very Christ?
Do the rulers know indeed?
The interrogative particle μήποτε may be rendered by the familiar expression they do not, do they? Rev., can it be that the rulers, etc. Indeed (ἀληθῶς); literally, truly.
The very (ἀληθῶς)
Howbeit we know this man whence he is: but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is.
But, it cannot be that the rulers have made such a discovery, for we know whence this man is.
We know (οἴδαμεν)
The knowing of the rulers is expressed by ἔγνωσαν; have they ascertained by searching and watching. The people's knowledge, οἴδαμεν, is that of settled conviction.
Referring to His parentage and family.
No one knoweth whence He is
Opinions differ as to the precise reference of these words. Some explain by a popular idea that the Messiah would not be known until anointed by Elias, when he would suddenly appear. Others refer to Isaiah 53:8; or to Daniel 7:13. Meyer says that while the popular belief that the immediate ancestry of the Messiah would be unknown when He came cannot further be historically proved, it is credible, partly from the belief in His divine origin, and partly from the obscurity into which the Davidic family had sunk.
Then cried Jesus in the temple as he taught, saying, Ye both know me, and ye know whence I am: and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not.
Rev., rightly, therefore, giving the reason for the succeeding words in Jesus' emotion awakened by the misconceptions of the people.
As He taught (διδάσκων)
Better, Rev., teaching. The expression cried teaching implies speaking in a peculiarly solemn manner and with an elevation of voice.
Me - whence Iam
Conceding the truth of the people's statement in John 7:27, we know this man whence he is, so far as His outward person and His earthly origin were concerned. He goes on to show that they are ignorant of His divine relationship.
True to the ideal of a sender: a genuine sender in the highest sense of the term. See on John 1:9.
But I know him: for I am from him, and he hath sent me.
From him (παρ' αὐτοῦ)
See on John 6:46.
Then they sought to take him: but no man laid hands on him, because his hour was not yet come.
Another of the frequent instances in which the A.V. of this Gospel renders the logical particle as a particle of time. Translate as Rev., therefore; because of His claim to be sent from God.
To take (πιάσαι)
See on Acts 3:7.
And many of the people believed on him, and said, When Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than these which this man hath done?
Will he do (μήτι ποιήσει)
Literally, surely he will not at all do.
The Pharisees heard that the people murmured such things concerning him; and the Pharisees and the chief priests sent officers to take him.
Then said Jesus unto them, Yet a little while am I with you, and then I go unto him that sent me.
I go (ὑπάγω)
I withdraw. See on John 6:21.
Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come.
Ye shall seek me
Not as now, for disputation or violence, but for help.
In absolute, eternal being and fellowship with the Father. I am (ἐγω εἰμι) is the formula of the divine existence (John 8:58). The phrase carries a hint of the essential nature of Jesus, and thus prepares the way for ye cannot come (see on John 7:7). The difference in character will make it essentially impossible.
Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he go, that we shall not find him? will he go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?
Will He go (οὗτος μέλλει πορεύεσθαι)
Literally, whither does this man intend to go, or whither is He thinking of going? The A.V. misses the contemptuous insinuation in this man (Rev.).
We shall not find him (ἡμεῖς)
The pronoun is emphatic; we, the religious leaders, the wise men, who scrutinize the claims of all professed teachers and keep a watchful eye on all impostors.
The dispersed among the Gentiles (τὴν διασπορὰν τῶν Ἑλλήνων).
Literally, the dispersion of the Greeks. The Jews who remained in foreign lands after the return from the Captivity were called by two names: 1. The Captivity, which was expressed in Greek by three words, viz., ἀποικία, a settlement far from home, which does not occur in the New Testament; μετοικεσία, change of abode, which is found in Matthew 1:11, Matthew 1:12, Matthew 1:17, and always of the carrying into Babylon; αἰχμαλωσία, a taking at the point of the spear; Ephesians 4:8; Revelation 13:10. 2. The Dispersion (διασπορά). See on 1 Peter 1:1; see on James 1:1. The first name marks their relation to their own land; the second to the strange lands.
The Gentiles (Ἕλληνας)
Literally, the Greeks. So Rev. See on Acts 6:1.
What manner of saying is this that he said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come?
What manner of saying is this (τίς ἐστιν ουτος ὁ λόγος)?
Rev., more simply and literally, what is this word?
In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.
The last day
The eighth, the close of the whole festival, and kept as a Sabbath (Leviticus 23:36). It was called the Day of the Great Hosanna, because a circuit was made seven times round the altar with "Hosanna;" also the Day of Willows, and the Day of Beating the Branches, because all the leaves were shaken off the willow-boughs, and the palm branches beaten in pieces by the side of the altar. Every morning, after the sacrifice, the people, led by a priest, repaired to the Fountain of Siloam, where the priest filled a golden pitcher, and brought it back to the temple amid music and joyful shouts. Advancing to the altar of burnt-offering, at the cry of the people, "Lift up thy hand!" he emptied the pitcher toward the west, and toward the east a cup of wine, while the people chanted, "With joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation." It is not certain that this libation was made on the eighth day, but there can be no doubt that the following words of the Lord had reference to that ceremony.
The imperfect, was standing; watching the ceremonies. Both A.V. and Rev. miss this graphic touch.
He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.
The scripture hath said
There is no exactly corresponding passage, but the quotation harmonizes with the general tenor of several passages, as Isaiah 55:1; Isaiah 58:11; Zechariah 13:1; Zechariah 14:8; Ezekiel 47:1; Joel 3:18.
The word is often used in the Old Testament for the innermost part of a man, the soul or heart. See Job 15:35; Job 32:19; Proverbs 18:8; Proverbs 20:27, Proverbs 20:30. The rite of drawing and pouring out the water pointed back to the smitten rock in the desert. In Exodus 17:6, "there shall come water out of it," is literally, "there shall come water from within him." The word belly here means the inmost heart of the believer, which pours forth spiritual refreshment. Compare 1 Corinthians 10:4; John 4:14.
Shall flow (ῥεύσουσιν)
The word occurs only here in the New Testament.
A type of abundance. Compare Numbers 20:11.
Compare John 4:10.
(But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)
The Holy Spirit, personally.
The Holy Ghost (πνεῦμα ἅγιον)
The best texts omit ἅγιον, holy, and the definite article is not in the text, so that the strict rendering is simply spirit. Literally, spirit was not yet. Given, in A.V. and Rev., is added to guard against a possible misconception, which, as Alford observes, "no intelligent reader could fall into." The word spirit, standing thus alone, marks, not the personal Spirit, but His operation or gift or manifestation. Canon Westcott aptly says: "It is impossible not to contrast the mysteriousness of this utterance with the clear teaching of St. John himself on the 'unction' of believers (1 John 2:20 sqq.), which forms a commentary, gained by later experience, upon the words of the Lord."
Was glorified (ἐδοξάσθη)
We have here one of John's characteristic terms, even as the idea is central to his Gospel - to show forth Jesus as the manifested glory of God (John 1:14). The beginning of our Lord's miracles was a manifestation of His glory (John 2:11). His glory was the expression of the Father's will (John 8:54). By His work He glorified the Father upon earth (John 12:28; John 17:4), and in this was Himself glorified (John 17:10). The sickness and resurrection of Lazarus were for the glory of God (John 11:4). The consummation of His work was marked by the words, "Now was the Son of man glorified, and God was glorified in Him" (John 13:31). His glory He had with the Father before the world was (John 17:5). It is consummated at His ascension (John 7:39; John 12:16). The passion is the way to glory (John 12:23, John 12:24; John 13:31). The fruitfulness of believers in Him is for the glory of God (John 15:8), and the office of the Spirit is to glorify Christ (John 16:14).
Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet.
The best texts omit. Read as Rev., some.
This saying (τὸν λόγον)
The best texts substitute τῶ λόγων τούτων, these words. So Rev.
See on John 1:21.
Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee?
Shall Christ, etc. (μὴ γὰρ ὁ Χριστός)
The Rev. gives better the force of the interrogative particle with γὰρ, for: What, doth the Christ come, etc. The idea in full is, "you cannot (μὴ) say that, for (γὰρ) doth the Christ, etc."
Shall - come (ἔρχεται)
The present tense. Rev., rightly, doth - come.
Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was?
So there was a division among the people because of him.
There was a division (σχίσμα ἐγένετο)
More correctly, as Rev., "there arose a division." See on John 1:3.
And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.
Would have taken (ἤθελον πιάσαι)
See on John 7:17. Rather, were disposed: or wished to take him.
Then came the officers to the chief priests and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him?
The officers answered, Never man spake like this man.
Like this man
Some of the best texts omit.
Rev., led astray. See on John 7:12.
Then answered them the Pharisees, Are ye also deceived?
Have any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed on him?
Of the rulers or of the Pharisees
The Greek order, as followed by Rev., is more suggestive: Hath any of the rulers believed on Him, or (to appeal to a larger circle) of the Pharisees?
But this people who knoweth not the law are cursed.
This people (ὁ ὄχλος οὗτος)
Better, multitude, as contrasted with the orthodox Jews. See on John 1:19.
As specimens of Rabbinical utterances concerning this class may be cited the expressions vermin, people of the earth, and the saying, "the ignorant is impious; only the learned shall have part in the resurrection." Even more abusive and abominable is this: "He shall not take a daughter of the people of the earth, because they are an abomination, and their wives are an abomination, and concerning their daughters it is said, Deuteronomy 27:21" - !
Nicodemus saith unto them, (he that came to Jesus by night, being one of them,)
He that came to Him by night (ὁ ἐλθὼν νυκτὸς πρὸς αὐτὸν)
The texts vary, either substituting πρότερον, before, for νυκτὸς, by night, or omitting the whole clause, and reading, Nicodemus saith unto them, being one of them.
Doth our law judge any man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth?
Any man (τὸν ἄνθρωπον)
Literally, the man, whoever he may be, that comes before them.
Before it hear him (ἐὰν μὴ ἀκούσῃ παρ' αὐτοῦ)
Rev., more correctly, except it first hear. Hear him, is an inadequate rendering of παρ' αὐτοῦ, which is, as Rev., from himself; παρά, implying from beside, i.e., from his side of the case.
They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and look: for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.
Compare John 5:39.
Some render see, and translate the following ὅτι, that, instead of for. So Rev. The difference is unimportant.
And every man went unto his own house.
This verse, and the portion of Chapter 8, as far as John 8:12, are generally pronounced by the best critical authorities not to belong to John's Gospel.