Vincent's Word Studies
And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars:
Better, as Rev., sign. See on Matthew 24:24.
Rev., better, arrayed. See on Revelation 3:5.
The moon under her feet
See Sol 6:10. The symbol is usually taken to represent the Church.
And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered.
Travailing in birth (ὠδίνουσα)
In pain (βασανιζομένη)
And there appeared another wonder in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads.
See on Revelation 6:4.
Satan. See Revelation 12:9. The word is found only in Revelation. In the Septuagint, of the serpent into which Moses' rod was changed. In Isaiah 27:1; Ezekiel 29:3, of the crocodile or leviathan of Job 41:1. In Jeremiah 51:34, of a dragon.
The Kingly crown, not the chaplet (στέφανος). See on Revelation 2:10
And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.
Of the stars of heaven
Some expositors find an allusion to the fallen angels (Jde 1:6).
Did cast them to the earth
Compare Daniel 8:10.
To devour her child as soon as it was born (ἵνα ὅταν τέκῃ τὸ τέκνον αὐτῆς καταφάγῃ)
Rev., more literally, that when she was delivered he might devour her child. Professor Milligan says: "In these words we have the dragon doing what Pharaoh did to Israel (Exodus 1:15-22), and again and again, in the Psalms and the Prophets, Pharaoh is spoken of as the dragon (Psalm 74:13; Isaiah 27:1; Isaiah 51:9; Ezekiel 29:3). Nor is it without interest to remember that Pharaoh's crown was wreathed with a dragon (the asp or serpent of Egypt), and that just as the eagle was the ensign of Rome, so the dragon was that of Egypt. Hence the significance of Moses' rod being turned into a serpent."
And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne.
A man-child (υἱὸν ἄῤῥενα)
Lit., a son, a male. The correct reading is ἄρσεν, the neuter, not agreeing with the masculine individual (υἱὸν son) but with the neuter of the genus. The object is to emphasize, not the sex, but the peculiar qualities of masculinity - power and vigor. Rev., a son, a man-child. Compare John 16:21; Jeremiah 20:15.
To rule (ποιμαίνειν)
Lit., to shepherd or tend. See on Matthew 2:6.
A rod of iron
Was caught up (ἡρπάσθη)
And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God, that they should feed her there a thousand two hundred and threescore days.
Of God (ἀπὸ τοῦ Θεοῦ)
Lit., from God, the preposition marking the source from which the preparation came. For a similar use, see James 1:13, "tempted of God."
And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels,
There was (ἐγένετο)
Lit., there arose.
War in heaven
The correct reading is τοῦ πολεμῆσαι to fight. So Rev., "going forth to war against the dragon (κατὰ τοῦ δράκοντος). The correct reading is μετά with.
And prevailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven.
And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him.
The great dragon (ὁ δράκων ὁ μέγας)
Lit., the dragon, the great (dragon).
That old serpent (ὁ ὄφις ὁ ἀρχαῖος)
Lit., the serpent, the old (serpent). For this habitual construction in John, see on 1 John 4:9. For ἀρχαῖος old, see on 1 John 2:7, and compare "he was a murderer ἀπ' ἀρχῆς from the beginning," John 8:44; ἀρχή beginning being etymologically akin to ἀρχαῖος old.
See on Matthew 4:1.
See on Luke 10:18.
The deceiver (ὁ πλανῶν)
Lit., he that deceiveth. See on 1 John 1:8.
See on Luke 2:1 The world with all its inhabitants.
Down to (εἰς)
And I heard a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ: for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night.
Saying in heaven (λέγουσαν ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ)
The correct reading joins in heaven with great voice. So Rev. I heard a great voice in heaven.
See on John 13:33.
Is come (ἐγένετο)
Lit., came to pass. Alford says: "It is impossible in English to join to a particle of present time, such as ἄρτι now, a verb in aoristic time. We are driven to the perfect in such cases."
Salvation, power, the kingdom
All have the article: the salvation, etc. So Rev. The phrase, now is come the salvation, etc., means that these are realized and established. Some, less correctly, render, now is the salvation, etc., become our God's. Compare Luke 3:6.
See on Mark 2:10. Rev., authority.
The accuser of our brethren (ὁ κατήγορος τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἡμῶν)
The correct form of the Greek for accuser is a transcript of the Rabbinical Hebrew, κατήγωρ. The Rabbins had a corresponding term συνήγωρ for Michael, as the advocate of God's people. The phrase is applied to Satan nowhere else in the New Testament.
Is cast down (κατεβλήθη)
Which accuseth (ὁ κατηγορῶν)
Lit., the one. The article with the present participle expresses what is habitual.
And they overcame him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death.
See on 1 John 2:13.
By the blood of the Lamb (διὰ τὸ αἷμα τοῦ ἀρνίου)
The preposition διά with the accusative signifies on account of. Hence Rev., correctly, because of: in virtue of the shedding of that blood. Similarly in the succeeding clause, "because of the word of their testimony." For lamb, see on Revelation 5:6.
See on John 1:7.
They loved not their life even unto death
Alford, correctly, "they carried their not-love of their life even unto death."
Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time.
To the inhabiters (τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν)
Omit. Read, as Rev., woe for the earth and for the sea.
See on John 3:36.
And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man child.
And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, from the face of the serpent.
The great eagle
The article does not point to the eagle of Revelation 8:13, but is generic.
A time and times and half a time
Three years and a half. See on Revelation 11:2.
And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood.
Cause her to be carried away of the flood (παύτην ποταμοφόρητον ποιήσῃ)
Lit., might make her one carried away by the stream: a river-born one. The word occurs only here in the New Testament.
And the earth helped the woman, and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth.
And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.
The best texts add to this chapter the opening words of ch. 13 (A.V.), "And I stood upon the sand of the sea." Some, however, change ἐστάθην I stood, to ἐστάθη he stood, referring to the dragon. So Rev.