Hebrews 1:2
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed the heir of all things, through whom also he created the world.

King James Bible
Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

American Standard Version
hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in his'son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds;

Douay-Rheims Bible
In these days hath spoken to us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the world.

English Revised Version
hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds;

Webster's Bible Translation
Hath in these last days spoken to us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

Weymouth New Testament
has at the end of these days spoken to us through a Son, who is the pre-destined Lord of the universe, and through whom He made the Ages.

Hebrews 1:2 Parallel
Commentary
Vincent's Word Studies

In these last times (ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων)

Lit. at the last of these days. The exact phrase only here; but comp 1 Peter 1:20 and Jde 1:18. lxx, ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν at the last of the days, Numbers 24:14; Deuteronomy 4:30; Jeremiah 23:20; Jeremiah 25:18; Daniel 10:14. The writer conceives the history of the world in its relation to divine revelation as falling into two great periods. The first he calls αἱ ἡμέραι αὗται these days (Hebrews 1:2), and ὀ καιρὸς ὁ ἐνεστηκώς the present season (Hebrews 9:9). The second he describes as καιρὸς διορθώσεως the season of reformation (Hebrews 9:10), which is ὀ καιρὸς ὁ μέλλων the season to come: comp. ἡ οἰκουμένη ἡ μέλλουσα the world to come (Hebrews 2:5); μέλλων αἰών the age to come (Hebrews 6:5); πόλις ἡ μέλλουσα the city to come (Hebrews 12:14). The first period is the period of the old covenant; the second that of the new covenant. The second period does not begin with Christ's first appearing. His appearing and public ministry are at the end of the first period but still within it. The dividing-point between the two periods is the συντέλεια τοῦ αἰῶνος the consummation of the age, mentioned in Hebrews 9:26. This does not mean the same thing as at the last of these days (Hebrews 1:2), which is the end of the first period denoted by these days, but the conclusion of the first and the beginning of the second period, at which Christ appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. This is the end of the καιρὸς ἐνεστηκώς the present season: this is the limit of the validity of the old sacrificial offerings: this is the inauguration of the time of reformation. The phrase ἐπ' ἐσχάτου τῶν ἡμερῶν τούτων therefore signifies, in the last days of the first period, when Christ was speaking on earth, and before his crucifixion, which marked the beginning of the second period, the better age of the new covenant.

Hath spoken unto us (ἐλάλησεν ἡμῖν)

Rend. spake, referring to the time of Christ's teaching in the flesh. To us God spake as to the fathers of old.

By his son (ἐν υἱῷ)

Lit. in a son. Note the absence of the article. Attention is directed, not to Christ's divine personality, but to his filial relation. While the former revelation was given through a definite class, the prophets, the new revelation is given through one who is a son as distinguished from a prophet. He belongs to another category. The revelation was a son-revelation. See Hebrews 2:10-18. Christ's high priesthood is the central fact of the epistle, and his sonship is bound up with his priesthood. See Hebrews 5:5. For a similar use of υἱός son without the article, applied to Christ, see Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 5:8; Hebrews 7:28.

Whom he hath appointed heir of all things (ὃν ἔθηκεν κληρονόμον πάντων)

For ἔθηκεν appointed, see on John 15:16. For κληρονόμος heir, see on inheritance, 1 Peter 1:4; and comp. on Christ as heir, Mark 12:1-12. God eternally predestined the Son to be the possessor and sovereign of all things. Comp. Psalm 89:28. Heirship goes with sonship. See Romans 8:17; Galatians 4:7. Christ attained the messianic lordship through incarnation. Something was acquired as the result of his incarnation which he did not possess before it, and could not have possessed without it. Equality with God was his birthright, but out of his human life, death, and resurrection came a type of sovereignty which could pertain to him only through his triumph over human sin in the flesh (see Hebrews 1:3), through his identification with men as their brother. Messianic lordship could not pertain to his preincarnate state: it is a matter of function, not of inherent power and majesty. He was essentially Son of God; he must become Son of man.

By whom also he made the worlds (δι' οὗ καὶ ἐποίησεν τοὺς αἰῶνας)

Διὰ commonly expresses secondary agency, but, in some instances, it is used of God's direct agency. See 1 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 4:7. Christ is here represented as a mediate agency in creation. The phrase is, clearly, colored by the Alexandrian conception, but differs from it in that Christ is not represented as a mere instrument, a passive tool, but rather as a cooperating agent. "Every being, to reach existence, must have passed through the thought and will of the Logos" (Godet); yet "the Son can do nothing of himself but what he seeth the Father doing" (John 5:19). With this passage Colossians 1:16 should be studied. There it is said that all things, collectively (τὰ πάντα), were created in him (ἐν αὐτῷ) and through him (δι' αὐτοῦ as here). The former expression enlarges and completes the latter. Δι' αὐτοῦ represents Christ as the mediate instrument. Ἐν αὐτῷ indicates that "all the laws and purposes which guide the creation and government of the universe reside in him, the Eternal Word, as their meeting-point." Comp. John 1:3; 1 Corinthians 8:6. For τοῦς αἰῶνας the worlds, see additional note on 2 Thessalonians 1:9. Rend. for by whom also he made, by whom he also made. The emphasis is on made, not on worlds: on the fact of creation, not on what was created. In the writer's thought heirship goes with creation. Christ is heir of what he made, and because he made it. As πάντων, in the preceding clause, regards all things taken singly, αἰῶνας regards them in cycles. Ἀιῶνας does not mean times, as if representing the Son as the creator of all time and times, but creation unfolded in time through successive aeons. All that, in successive periods of time, has come to pass, has come to pass through him. Comp. 1 Corinthians 10:11; Ephesians 3:21; Hebrews 9:26; 1 Timothy 1:17; lxx, Tob. 13:6, 10; Ecclesiastes 3:11. See also Clement of Rome, Ad 1 Corinthians 35, ὁ δημιουργὸς καὶ πατὴρ τῶν αἰώνων the Creator and Father of the ages. Besides this expression, the writer speaks of the world as κόσμος (Hebrews 4:3; Hebrews 10:5); ἡ οἰκουμένη (Hebrews 1:6), and τὰ πάντα (Hebrews 1:3).

Hebrews 1:2 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

these.

Genesis 49:1 And Jacob called to his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days.

Numbers 24:14 And now, behold, I go to my people: come therefore...

Deuteronomy 4:30 When you are in tribulation, and all these things are come on you, even in the latter days, if you turn to the LORD your God...

Deuteronomy 18:15 The LORD your God will raise up to you a Prophet from the middle of you, of your brothers, like to me; to him you shall listen;

Deuteronomy 31:29 For I know that after my death you will utterly corrupt yourselves, and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you...

Isaiah 2:2 And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the LORD's house shall be established in the top of the mountains...

Jeremiah 30:24 The fierce anger of the LORD shall not return, until he has done it, and until he have performed the intents of his heart...

Jeremiah 48:47 Yet will I bring again the captivity of Moab in the latter days, said the LORD. Thus far is the judgment of Moab.

Ezekiel 38:16 And you shall come up against my people of Israel, as a cloud to cover the land; it shall be in the latter days...

Daniel 2:28 But there is a God in heaven that reveals secrets, and makes known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter days...

Daniel 10:14 Now I am come to make you understand what shall befall your people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days.

Hosea 3:5 Afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the LORD their God, and David their king...

Micah 4:1 But in the last days it shall come to pass, that the mountain of the house of the LORD shall be established in the top of the mountains...

Acts 2:17 And it shall come to pass in the last days, said God, I will pour out of my Spirit on all flesh...

Galatians 4:4 But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,

Ephesians 1:10 That in the dispensation of the fullness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven...

2 Peter 3:3 Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts,

Jude 1:18 How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts.

spoken.

Hebrews 1:5,8 For to which of the angels said he at any time, You are my Son, this day have I begotten you? And again, I will be to him a Father...

Hebrews 2:3 How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord...

Hebrews 5:8 Though he were a Son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered;

Hebrews 7:3 Without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like to the Son of God...

Matthew 3:17 And see a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

Matthew 17:5 While he yet spoke, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Son...

Matthew 26:63 But Jesus held his peace, And the high priest answered and said to him, I adjure you by the living God...

Mark 1:1 The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God;

Mark 12:6 Having yet therefore one son, his well beloved, he sent him also last to them, saying, They will reverence my son.

John 1:14,17,18 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelled among us, (and we beheld his glory...

John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish...

John 15:15 From now on I call you not servants; for the servant knows not what his lord does: but I have called you friends...

Romans 1:4 And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:

appointed.

Hebrews 2:8,9 You have put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him...

Psalm 2:6-9 Yet have I set my king on my holy hill of Zion...

Isaiah 9:6,7 For to us a child is born, to us a son is given: and the government shall be on his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful...

Isaiah 53:10-12 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he has put him to grief: when you shall make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed...

Matthew 21:38 But when the farmers saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him...

Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spoke to them, saying, All power is given to me in heaven and in earth.

John 3:25 Then there arose a question between some of John's disciples and the Jews about purifying.

John 13:3 Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God;

John 16:15 All things that the Father has are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall show it to you.

John 17:2 As you have given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as you have given him.

Acts 10:36 The word which God sent to the children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ: (he is Lord of all:)

Romans 8:17 And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him...

1 Corinthians 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things...

1 Corinthians 15:25-27 For he must reign, till he has put all enemies under his feet...

Ephesians 1:20-23 Which he worked in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places...

Philippians 2:9-11 Why God also has highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name...

Colossians 1:17,18 And he is before all things, and by him all things consist...

by whom.

Proverbs 8:22-31 The LORD possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old...

Isaiah 44:24 Thus said the LORD, your redeemer, and he that formed you from the womb, I am the LORD that makes all things...

Isaiah 45:12,18 I have made the earth, and created man on it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded...

John 1:3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.

1 Corinthians 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things...

Ephesians 3:9 And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world has been hid in God...

Colossians 1:16,17 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones...

Cross References
Deuteronomy 4:30
When you are in tribulation, and all these things come upon you in the latter days, you will return to the LORD your God and obey his voice.

Psalm 2:8
Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession.

Matthew 13:39
and the enemy who sowed them is the devil. The harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are angels.

Matthew 28:18
And Jesus came and said to them, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.

Mark 12:7
But those tenants said to one another, 'This is the heir. Come, let us kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.'

John 1:3
All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.

John 1:10
He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world did not know him.

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