Jeremiah 25:20
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
and all the mixed tribes among them; all the kings of the land of Uz and all the kings of the land of the Philistines (Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod);

King James Bible
And all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod,

American Standard Version
and all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of the Uz, and all the kings of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Gaza, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod;

Douay-Rheims Bible
And all in general: all the kings of the land of Ausitis, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ascalon, and Gaza, and Accaron, and the remnant of Azotus.

English Revised Version
and all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Gaza, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod;

Webster's Bible Translation
And all the mingled people, and all the kings of the land of Uz, and all the kings of the land of the Philistines, and Ashkelon, and Azzah, and Ekron, and the remnant of Ashdod,

Jeremiah 25:20 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The perfect עבדוּ is to be regarded as a prophetic present. עבד בּ, impose labour, servitude on one, cf. Jeremiah 22:13, i.e., reduce one to servitude. גּם המּה is an emphatic repetition of the pronoun בּם, cf. Gesen. 121, 3. Upon them, too (the Chaldeans), shall many peoples and great kings impose service, i.e., they shall make the Chaldeans bondsmen, reduce them to subjection. With "I will requite them," cf. Jeremiah 50:29; Jeremiah 51:24, where this idea is repeatedly expressed.

(Note: Jeremiah 25:11-14 are pronounced by Hitz., Ew., Graf to be spurious and interpolated; but Hitz. excepts the second half of Jeremiah 25:14, and proposes to set it immediately after the first half of Jeremiah 25:11. Their main argument is the dogmatic prejudice, that in the fourth year of Jehoiakim Jeremiah could not have foretold the fall of Babylon after seventy years' domination. The years foretold, says Hitz., "would coincide by all but two years, or, if Darius the Mede be a historical person, perhaps quite entirely. Such correspondence between history and prophecy would be a surprising accident, or else Jeremiah must have known beforehand the number of years during which the subjection to Babylon would last." Now the seventy years of Babylon's sovereignty are mentioned against in Jeremiah 29:10, where Jeremiah promises the exiles that after seventy years they shall return to their native land, and no doubt is thrown by the above-mentioned critics on this statement; but there the seventy years are said to be a so-called round number, because that prophecy was composed nine years later than the present one. But on the other hand, almost all comm. have remarked that the utterance of Jeremiah 29:10 : "when as for Babylon seventy years are accomplished, will I visit you," points directly back to the prophecy before us (25), and so gives a testimony to the genuineness of our 11th verse. And thus at the same time the assertion is disposed of, that in Jeremiah 29:10 the years given are a round number; for it is not there said that seventy years will be accomplished from the time of that letter addressed by the prophet to those in Babylon, but the terminus a quo of the seventy years is assumed as known already from the present twenty-fifth chap. - The other arguments brought forward by Hitz. against the genuineness of the verse have already been pronounced inconclusive by Ng. Nevertheless Ng. himself asserts the spuriousness, not indeed of Jeremiah 25:11 (the seventy years' duration of Judah's Babylonian bondage), but of Jeremiah 25:12-14, and on the following grounds: - 1. Although in Jeremiah 25:11, and below in Jeremiah 25:26, it is indicated that Babylon itself will not be left untouched by the judgment of the Lord, yet (he says) it is incredible that in the fourth year of Jehoiakim the prophet could have spoken of the fall of Babylon in such a full and emphatic manner as is the case in Jeremiah 25:12-14. But no obvious reason can be discovered why this should be incredible. For though in Jeremiah 25:26 Jeremiah makes use of the name Sheshach for Babylon, it does not hence follow that at that moment he desired to speak of it only in a disguised manner. In the statement that the Jews should serve the king of Babylon seventy years, it was surely clearly enough implied that after the seventy years Babylon's sovereignty should come to an end. Still less had Jeremiah occasion to fear that the announcement of the fall of Babylon after seventy years would confirm the Jews in their defiant determination not to be tributary to Babylon. The prophets of the Lord did not suffer themselves to be regulated in their prophesyings by such reasons of human expediency. - 2. Of more weight are his other two arguments. Jeremiah 25:12 and Jeremiah 25:13 presume the existence of the prophecy against Babylon, Jeremiah 50 and 51, which was not composed till the fourth year of Zedekiah; and the second half of Jeremiah 25:13 presumes the existence of the other prophecies against the nations, and that too as a ספר. And although the greater number of these prophecies are older than the time of the battle at Carchemish, yet we may see (says Ng.) from the relation of apposition in which the second half of Jeremiah 25:13 stands to the first, that here that Sepher against the peoples is meant in which the prophecy against Babylon was already contained. But from all this nothing further follows than that the words: "all that is written in this book and that Jeremiah prophesied against the peoples," were not uttered by Jeremiah in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, but were first appended at the editing of the prophecies or the writing of them down in the book which has come down to us. The demonstrative הזּה does by no means show that he who wrote it regarded the present passage, namely Jeremiah 25, as belonging to the Sepher against the peoples, or that the prophecies against the peoples must have stood in immediate connection with Jeremiah 25. It only shows that the prophecies against the peoples too were found in the book which contained Jeremiah 25. Again, it is true that the first half of Jeremiah 25:14 occurs again somewhat literally in Jeremiah 27:7; but we do not at all see in this reliable evidence that Jeremiah could not have written Jeremiah 25:14. Ng. founds this conclusion mainly on the allegation that the perf. עבדוּ is wrong, whereas in Jeremiah 27:7 it is joined regularly by ו consec. to the indication of time which precedes. But the perfect is here to be regarded as the prophetic present, marking the future as already accomplished in the divine counsel; just as in Jeremiah 27:6 the categorical נתתּי represents as accomplished that which in reality yet awaited its fulfilment. Accordingly we regard none of these arguments as conclusive. On the other hand, the fact that the Alexandrian translators have rendered Jeremiah 25:12 and Jeremiah 25:13, and have made the last clause of Jeremiah 25:13 the heading to the oracles against the peoples, furnishes an unexceptionable testimony to the genuineness of all three verses. Nor is this testimony weakened by the omission in that translation of Jeremiah 25:14; for this verse could not but be omitted when the last clause of Jeremiah 25:13 had been taken as a heading, since the contents of Jeremiah 25:14 were incompatible with that view.)

Jeremiah 25:20 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the mingled.

Jeremiah 25:24 And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert,

Jeremiah 50:37 A sword is on their horses, and on their chariots, and on all the mingled people that are in the middle of her...

Exodus 12:38 And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.

Ezekiel 30:5 Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league...

Uz.

Genesis 10:23 And the children of Aram; Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.

Genesis 22:21 Huz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram,

1 Chronicles 1:17 The sons of Shem; Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Meshech.

Job 1:1 There was a man in the land of Uz, whose name was Job; and that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God...

Lamentations 4:21 Rejoice and be glad, O daughter of Edom, that dwell in the land of Uz; the cup also shall pass through to you: you shall be drunken...

Philistines.

Jeremiah 47:1 The word of the LORD that came to Jeremiah the prophet against the Philistines, before that Pharaoh smote Gaza.

Ezekiel 25:15-17 Thus said the Lord GOD; Because the Philistines have dealt by revenge, and have taken vengeance with a despiteful heart...

Amos 1:6-8 Thus said the LORD; For three transgressions of Gaza, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof...

Zephaniah 2:4-7 For Gaza shall be forsaken, and Ashkelon a desolation: they shall drive out Ashdod at the noon day, and Ekron shall be rooted up...

Zechariah 9:5-7 Ashkelon shall see it, and fear; Gaza also shall see it, and be very sorrowful, and Ekron; for her expectation shall be ashamed...

Ashkelon, Gaza.

1 Samuel 6:17 And these are the golden tumors which the Philistines returned for a trespass offering to the LORD; for Ashdod one, for Gaza one...

remnant.

Isaiah 20:1 In the year that Tartan came to Ashdod, (when Sargon the king of Assyria sent him,) and fought against Ashdod, and took it;

Amos 1:8 And I will cut off the inhabitant from Ashdod, and him that holds the scepter from Ashkelon, and I will turn my hand against Ekron...

Nehemiah 13:23-27 In those days also saw I Jews that had married wives of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab...

Cross References
Genesis 10:23
The sons of Aram: Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash.

Job 1:1
There was a man in the land of Uz whose name was Job, and that man was blameless and upright, one who feared God and turned away from evil.

Isaiah 20:1
In the year that the commander in chief, who was sent by Sargon the king of Assyria, came to Ashdod and fought against it and captured it--

Jeremiah 25:24
all the kings of Arabia and all the kings of the mixed tribes who dwell in the desert;

Jeremiah 47:1
The word of the LORD that came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning the Philistines, before Pharaoh struck down Gaza.

Jeremiah 47:5
Baldness has come upon Gaza; Ashkelon has perished. O remnant of their valley, how long will you gash yourselves?

Jeremiah 50:37
A sword against her horses and against her chariots, and against all the foreign troops in her midst, that they may become women! A sword against all her treasures, that they may be plundered!

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